In October 1993, the American Heart Association appointed the Task Force on Automatic External Defibrillation. The task force was charged with conducting a conference on automatic external defibrillation, evaluating research needed for broader community use of automatic external defibrillators, and overseeing evaluation of the feasibility and desirability of their use by healthcare professionals and the lay public.

In December 1994, a conference on public access defibrillation was held in Washington, DC. More than 300 persons attended, representing science, industry, the healthcare professions, law, and the federal government. During the meeting the participants reached a consensus on the general proposition of greater public access to defibrillation and the need for broad-based clinical research, public and professional education, and legislative reform.

improving emergency cardiac care

Following the conference, members of the task force, with input from others in the field of emergency cardiac care, wrote this statement, which was approved by the AHA Board of Directors in June 1995. Early bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and rapid defibrillation are the two major contributors to survival of adult victims of sudden cardiac arrest. The AHA supports efforts to provide prompt defibrillation to victims of cardiac arrest.

In public access defibrillation, the technology of defibrillation is accessible to the community

Automatic external defibrillation is one of the most promising methods for achieving rapid defibrillation. In public access defibrillation, the technology of defibrillation and training in its use are accessible to the community. The AHA believes that this is the next step in strengthening the chain of survival. Public access defibrillation will involve considerable societal change and will succeed only through the strong efforts of the AHA and others with a commitment to improving emergency cardiac care.

broad public support

Public access defibrillation will include:

  • Performance of defibrillation by laypersons at home and by firefighters, police, security personnel, and non-physician care providers in the community.
  • Exploration of the use of bystander-initiated automatic external defibrillation in rural communities and congested urban areas where resuscitation strategies have had little success.

The AHA can also play a major role by:

  • 提高公众意识,去颤improves the rate of survival from an often-fatal condition that each day affects 1000 Americans.
  • Ensuring that objective, current research data are used to guide implementation of these changes in performance and teaching of CPR.
  • Working with medical manufacturers, legislators, and governmental agencies to promote safety and efficacy, reduce cost, and update training requirements to facilitate implementation of public access defibrillation. Broader use of automatic external defibrillators should also lead to readiness tests and features that deter both misuse and misapplications.

Meaningful change will occur only with the broad public support that has traditionally characterized the AHA’s efforts in the fight against heart disease and stroke.

Share with LinkedIn Share with Twitter Share with Facebook Share with Facebook
下载PDF version 下载PDF version

In case you missed it

What Are the New Trends in Firefighting Equipment?
What Are the New Trends in Firefighting Equipment?

Equipment is an important element in fighting fires, and in keeping firefighters safe. But what new needs are driving the development of equipment? How can equipment expand its role in fighting fires, or in managing building occupancy and traffic flow for that matter? We asked our Expert Panel Roundtable: What are the new trends and opportunities in firefighting equipment?


全球大流行为消防员提供了消防队员的并发症,在可能是一个积极的野火季节。消防人力可能会被大流行减少;培训课程已被取消,推迟或远程进行。旅行风险破坏了传统的呼吁来自全国各地的消防员或世界各地的方法,以帮助打击野火。社会疏散与团队合作和Camaraderie有可能,这些是消防单位的特征。社区Basecamps在大流行期间,每个人都吃和睡觉的人相反,较小的营地是规则,包装的饭菜被交付给每个营地。如果有人测试新的冠状病毒,较小的团队可以减少广泛检疫的需求。每日健康检查日常健康检查确保每个人都保持健康。温度检查,增强的清洁时间表和更多个人防护设备(PPE)是规则。 The toll of wildfires on air quality is a negative health factor for anyone suffering from COVID-19, or anyone at risk. Possible spread of the disease complicates the logistics of sheltering evacuees. Health counseling is done remotely, and cots in shared quarters are spaced further apart. COVID-19 Wildfire Guidelines Medical experts, including the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), have developed COVID-19 safety guidelines for wildfire operations and recommendations for firefighter screening, testing and social distancing.COVID-19 also presents some of the same respiratory symptoms as wildfire smoke exposure Exposure to air pollutants in wildfire smoke can irritate the lungs, cause inflammation, alter immune function and increase susceptibility to respiratory infections, likely including COVID-19, according to the CDC. COVID-19 also presents some of the same respiratory symptoms as wildfire smoke exposure – dry cough, sore throat, and difficulty breathing. The overall approach to fighting wildfires is being impacted by the pandemic. Since the early 2000s, the strategy has been to allow some wildfires to burn across large areas as a natural part of rejuvenating the forest. “Smokey Bear” Method Now, more fires will likely be extinguished quickly rather than risk them getting out of control when there may not be enough firefighters. Use of aerial firefighting will expand as a means to minimize the need for firefighters on the groundThis direct-suppression model – also known as the “Smokey Bear” method – keeps fires small enough to be managed by local resources rather than needing additional firefighters from other areas. Use of aerial firefighting will expand as a means to minimize the need for firefighters on the ground. The National Interagency Fire Center predicts that this year’s wildfire season, which extends from June to September, will see more wildfires than usual in the Southwest and Pacific Northwest. Because of coronavirus concerns, the U.S. Forest Service has suspended controlled burns, which are used to prevent larger wildfires. Dry weather this fall will make fires more likely to spread quickly. Wildfires in Urban/Suburban Neighborhoods Particularly of concern are wildfires in areas that border urban or suburban neighborhoods, the so-called wildland-urban interface. These situations are when homes (and lives) are most at risks. Fire officials and volunteers have historically helped homeowners address risks such as yards with dry brush, but this year the help is being offered remotely with video calls, which is a less effective approach. There is some optimism in the firefighting results at the Sawtooth Fire in Arizona in late May. In response to the first wildfire of the season, 399 firefighters were deployed. They practiced social distancing, wore masks, and slept in local hotels. Smaller teams of four to 20 firefighters helped to minimize physical interaction and virus transmissions. Zoom meetings helped with coordination. A medical officer was on site to ensure guidelines were followed. The final report judged the effectiveness of the protections and safety record as “remarkable.”

火灾探测: Protecting Food And Grocery Stores
火灾探测: Protecting Food And Grocery Stores

在这些挑战时间内,它比以往任何时候都更重要,以保护食物供应链,包括世界各地城市的超市和便利店。根据NFPA(国家消防协会)发布的一份报告,平均每年在美国的食品和杂货店(包括超市和便利店)的食品和杂货店发生了3,740次火灾。雷竞技在哪里下载Mercintile Properies的结构燃烧负责12个生命的损失和超过6亿美元的间接财产损失,这并没有考虑业务中断的成本和对商店声誉的影响。许多商店在火灾之后无法恢复。该报告估计,单次火灾平均可能会花费46,000美元,其中在后威尔比投资在火灾探测系统中得多。超市中最常见的火灾原因是从两种不同的角度来看数据很重要。首先是原因的火灾数,另一个是通过原因量化属性损耗。该报告估计,烹饪设备造成的平均火灾可能会花费46,000美元,包括带厨房和暖气和便携式设备的商店,占21%的公告,但仅占房地产损失的7%和四个平民死亡人数消防员和第一个响应者死亡在不同的报告中注册。另一方面,电气分配和照明设备发生故障和有缺陷的布线占给定年份总火灾总量的15%,但造成了1.65亿美元的财产损失,或报告中记录的总量的27%。提及故意火灾是第三次报告的原因也很重要,占总火灾总额的11%,报告中突出的财产损失的20%。 Occupation, materials and risks The kind of store poses a significant variety of risks associated to the type of occupation, the number of occupants and the materials stored and available in the shopping areas. It’s possible to find combustible materials of diverse nature and propagation speed. Cardboard and paper wrapping can be found in all store areas, including book and magazine stands. Cleaning products, oils and fatty products might have a high propagation speed. All of this, surrounded by different kind of plastics, immensely increase the level of risk. Overall, combustible liquids caused 41% of the civilian deaths recorded during the report In my firefighting years I’ve responded to several fires in food supermarkets and distribution centers, and saw tuna cans (canned with oil) exploding and spreading flames to the surrounding areas. Regarding occupation, it is known that supermarkets and groceries stores are places with high levels of occupation, especially during working hours. But one interesting fact that the report found is that fires occurring between 9pm and 5am can cause, on average, $73,800 in property damage. The NFPA estimates that 21% of human life losses happened between 12am and 3am. This highlights the importance of installing and maintaining an automatic fire detection system. Installing fire detection And Protecting Your Store With the variety of materials and the risk level that can be found in this kind of environment, it’s necessary to take a holistic approach. Fire protection should be designed while considering several angles, from passive protection in all interior and exterior structures and cladding to active protection with sprinkler and clean agent systems, proper ventilation and smoke control and automatic fire detection and evacuation systems. On average 3,740 fires occur in food and groceries stores in the US annually Several detection technologies need to work in parallel, depending on the type of products stored, the environment and the expected level of occupation on the protected area. Store height and ventilation need to be taken into consideration and also the kind of lighting in some cases. Depending on the ceiling height, the shopping floor could be protected with beam smoke detectors. If the ceiling is below six meters, or the store shelves obstruct the beam, it’s possible to use spot type smoke detectors. The same approach can be taken for warehousing and storage areas, but here I would recommend multi-criteria detectors, with heat and smoke detection combined. localized protection As I’ve mentioned before, cooking areas have an increased level of risk, which calls for localized protection. Here, I would recommend multi-criteria (smoke/heat) detectors for areas where food is heated and served, and smoke/heat/Carbon monoxide detectors on cooking areas to avoid nuisance alarms caused by cooking smoke and steam. It’s important to mention that until this year it was possible to install heat detection in cooking areas, but the UL 268 7th edition that comes into effect in 2021 will require cooking areas to be protected with smoke detection, and smoke detectors have to be able to reject nuisance alarms caused by cooking smoke and steam. Smaller supermarkets and convenience stores usually have vertical freezers or horizontal open freezers. Here, electrical and mechanical failures can ignite fires, which is why it is important to protect the rear side of the freezers. I would recommend point-type smoke detectors, as photoelectric smoke detectors tend to perform better on smoldering fires. The report mentions that air conditioning equipment and electrical equipment can be sources of ignition as well. To protect A/C rooms and electrical rooms I would recommend combined smoke/heat detectors, or maybe even smoke/heat/CO to assure better detection and avoid unwanted alarms in these business critical areas. There is a type of photoelectric smoke detector that uses two different LED sources inside the smoke chamber. This technology, called Dual-Ray, allows the smoke detector to identify the particles inside the chamber by size. The detector knows if it is sensing dust or steam, and can even differentiate between cooking or cigarette smoke from actual smoke from a smoldering fire. Bosch Building Technologies first introduced dual Ray technology in 2015. protecting the food supply chain During these challenging times, it’s more important than ever to protect the food supply chain and avoid the social and economic impact of fires in food stores, especially in impoverished areas. Supermarkets and convenience stores present a variety of challenges regarding fire protection, which calls for a holistic approach where passive and active protection are equally important. To achieve this target, one key element is automatic fire detection. Smoke and heat sensing technologies must be combined, and one size-fits-all approach is not enough. Detection and effective evacuation are critical to protect lives and minimize property loss.