下载PDF版本

虽然对我的2021个威斯康星州公共安务公共安务委员会(WIPSCOM)会议介绍进行研究,但它立即明确证明,确保国家的公共安全应答点(PSAPS)不再只是一个挑战。

下一代911将从模拟运营环境转向数字运营环境,这需要在三个关键领域进行战略投资:人员、流程和技术。随着呼叫中心技术在全国范围内的发展,公共安全领域对网络安全的需求从未像现在这样重要。

互联网连接系统

传统上,paps通过铜线传输线和过时的蜂窝网络组成的模拟电话网络来接收呼叫,这些网络覆盖了靠近呼叫中心的较小区域。随着下一代911及其伴随的数字电话网络服务的引入,呼叫中心网络对潜在攻击者的暴露程度呈指数级增加,由于互联网连接系统,允许从任何地方访问。

一个很好的类比就是想想进入你家的入口。传统的方法允许两个入口进入房子——前门和后门。随着数字网络的引入,现在有更多的入口进入家庭或呼叫中心,这意味着更需要安全和员工的威胁意识。

自2019年以来,已有大约300个网络攻击影响当地政府机构
最近的许多攻击都是针对使用一种叫做社会工程的技术的人

第一个响应者组织

自2019年以来,大约发生了300起网络攻击,影响了当地政府机构,包括警察局、紧急调度呼叫中心和应急组织。其中125起袭击事件专门针对公共安全机构,如消防或急救站,所有50个州都报告了袭击事件。最近的例子表明,针对我们的第一反应者的网络攻击正以惊人的速度增长。

最近的许多攻击都是针对使用一种叫做社会工程的技术的人。这是指攻击者试图通过电话和/或电子邮件欺骗受害者,以帮助攻击者将病毒引入网络,提供敏感数据或共享用户名和密码,以实现其犯罪动机。网络罪犯的主要目标是利用社会工程技术来实现更为严重的攻击:勒索软件。

关键计算机系统

Ransomware是一种可恶意软件(恶意软件),可防止访问敏感文件

勒索软件是一种恶意软件,它使用只有攻击者才能解锁的加密技术来阻止敏感文件、数据和关键计算机系统的访问。受害者必须随机支付一笔钱,通常是以无法追踪的加密货币形式支付给攻击者,后者承诺一旦他们收到资金就会解密数据。

看看攻击者的动机可以帮助我们所有人理解和减轻 - 对我们的第一个受访者的威胁。以下是网络犯罪分子目标公共安全应答点的三个主要原因:

  • 货币收益:用勒索软件感染PSAP可能会导致大量支出,以便恢复第一响应服务。
  • 中断服务:关闭关键服务可以将威胁演员放在公众眼中,同时也在多阶段攻击中发挥重要作用。
  • 廉价的刺激:攻击者及时,甚至被误导的业余爱好者可以针对恶劣或社会站立的关键服务。

减轻网络风险

人类的元素,行动或不适用在85%的数据泄露中发挥了直接作用

不管动机如何,其结果基本上都是一样的:对保护我们的社区和家庭至关重要的第一反应服务遭到破坏。根据威瑞森公司的《2021年数据泄露调查报告》,在85%的数据泄露中,人为因素——即人们的决定、行动或不作为——起到了直接作用。

由于网络威胁定位灵机和第一次响应者的武器队伍在数量和严重程度上继续增长,通过员工的意识和教育来解决威胁是减轻网络风险的良好第一步。以下是任何PSAP现在可以采取的四个步骤来评估和减轻目标统计组织的网络威胁。

安全意识培训

对员工进行安全意识培训-对所有PSAP员工进行持续的安全培训,然后对关键角色和部门进行更有针对性的、基于角色的安全培训,如呼叫中心经理、调度员或敏感数据访问人员。一般的安全意识培训应侧重于员工可能遇到的广泛但相关的安全主题,如如何识别钓鱼邮件。

安全培训计划应至少每年至少每年审查培训内容

基于角色的安全培训应该更进一步,包括管理层应该如何回应勒索软件支付要求,或者如何验证要求敏感信息或紧急付款的外部呼叫者的身份。安全培训计划应至少每年进行一次,培训内容每半年回顾一次,以确保培训内容与你们的操作环境相关的完整性、准确性和相关性。

物理大楼访问

核实和加强员工访问控制-这包括物理建筑物访问和逻辑访问任何信息或您的组织操作的计算机系统。大多数组织都有几个内部或外部用户,如供应商、清洁公司和其他组织,他们与办公室或其他物理位置有接触,这增加了通过模拟或跟踪攻击进行盗窃或未经授权访问的风险。raybet王者荣耀

通过电子徽章或最低限度的密码访问确保外部位置足够安全。急救人员和公共服务机构应该培训员工,让他们在攻击者进入大楼时,能明显地展示员工徽章,并向管理层报告侵权行为。

多因素身份验证

外部访客应被要求提前通知组织

外部访客应该被要求提前宣布到组织,通过指定区域输入,办理登机手续或直接联系,登录,显示识别并佩戴清晰可识别的访客徽章。

应通过多因素身份验证保护包含诸如员工记录或与其他国家和联邦机构的连接等敏感数据的计算机系统。多因素认证是一种安全术语,参考使用几个因素进行验证计算机系统,包括您知道的内容(例如,用户名或密码),您拥有的东西(例如,智能手机)或您所在的东西(例如,指纹或语音模式)。访问计算机系统时使用两个或多个因素至关重要,对维持网络犯罪分子是至关重要的!

联邦威胁情报

利用免费资源成熟你的网络安全姿态——应急救援人员和公益组织有大量免费网络安全资源可供使用。这包括通过安全报告提供的联邦威胁情报,报告概述了他们使用的易受攻击的软件或硬件产品,以及由当地的网络响应团队提供的直接咨询服务,这些团队由纳税人出资。raybet炉石传说

美国CISA还提供区域咨询服务,以协助所有地方政府机构

每个第一反应者和公共服务组织都应该考虑成为相关信息共享和分析中心(ISAC)的成员,如多国家信息共享和分析中心(MS-ISAC),因为他们提供免费的威胁情报服务和咨询资源,以帮助促进网络安全。美国网络安全和基础设施安全局(US-CISA)还提供区域咨询服务,以帮助所有地方政府机构完善其网络安全态势。

公共服务机构

雇用外部安全公司以识别和正确的弱点-在预算和人员允许的范围内,急救人员和公共服务组织应聘请外部安全或审计公司来评估其网络安全实践和态势的状态。

这些公司专门从事安全最佳实践,并在广泛的组织中评估安全控制的适当性。把这些公司带进来,对组织如何运作及其弱点有一个新的视角,通常是有用的。这些业务通常每年执行一次,重点是涉及敏感数据的核心计算机系统和业务流程。

与LinkedIn分享 分享推特 和Facebook分享 与app分享 和Facebook分享
下载PDF版本 下载PDF版本

作者简介

亚当Kohnke
亚当Kohnke信息安全经理,信息安全公司

以防你错过了

FDIC International 2021审查:尽管八月热,在挥之不去的大流行中,展示胜利
FDIC International 2021审查:尽管八月热,在挥之不去的大流行中,展示胜利

自2019年以来首次在印第安纳波利斯回来,FDIC International 2021提供了全面的会议,动手培训和设备展览会。出勤率下降,但在取消和延迟造成的Covid-19大流行后,每个人都觉得很高兴回到展会上。尽管对Covid-19和Delta变体持续令人担忧,但掩蔽合规性很低。很少有社会疏远。在许多方面,该节目似乎回到了正常。该活动的亮点是国家堕落的消防员基金会(NFFF)9/11楼梯攀登。对于与会者来说,这是一个方法,以纪念并记住消防社区中的人,他们在9/11悲剧中给予了生命。数以百计的FDIC参与者通过攀登或走上世界贸易中心的110个故事等同于致敬。MSA的MANAR手持设备在始终如一,安全是FDIC展览中的巨大主题,包括在手持工具中的开发,安全是FDIC展览的巨大主题,包括手持工具的开发。MSA安全显示了新的月球手持设备,有助于将消防队连接,将方向和距离信息与热成像进行连接,以帮助查找分隔的队友并减少响应时间。 LUNAR uses cloud technology to increase fire-scene management capabilities for incident commanders. LUNAR can be used as a stand-alone device or as part of an MSA SCBA (self-contained breathing apparatus) system. Thermal imaging with edge detection identifies hot spots and ventilation points, so as to simplify navigation through low-visibility environments. Tethered drone and Reveal FirePRO X thermal camera FotoKite (Perspective Robotics AG), which has a joint development agreement with MSA Safety, featured a tethered drone that hovers over the site of an emergency, in order to provide networking capabilities through the tether for better connectivity. Seek Thermal offers the ‘smallest and lightest’ thermal imaging camera, available for US$ 799 and seeks to bring the benefits of thermal technology to every position on the fire team. The Reveal FirePRO X can now be charged using a four-station charging dock priced at US$ 399. The compact size makes the FirePRO X easy to carry and manage, while its high resolution and fast frame rate ensure superior images. Teledyne gas detection systems exhibited Teledyne displayed a range of gas detection systems, starting with the simple Protégé ZM carbon monoxide meter that can clip onto pockets, helmets, and EMS bags. A new product is the Gas Laser, a hand-held device that can quickly scan common venting points from a safe distance, in order to identify the presence of dangerous explosive gas. Teledyne recently acquired FLIR and the combined companies will provide a spectrum of imaging technologies and products spanning X-ray through infrared and from components to complete imaging systems. FDIC International’s Innovation Hub focused on new technologies coming to the fire service Innovation Hub FDIC International’s Innovation Hub focused on new technologies coming to the fire service, featured in a presentation theater on the show floor. Leading the initiative was SafeTech, a College Station, Texas-based non-profit organization, whose mission is to bring new technologies to first responders and armed forces. One featured company was Tracks North America, which provides unmanned vehicles with fork-lift capabilities. Another was Infysort, which makes superabsorbent pellets – ‘hyper-blown polypropylene sorbent nanomaterial’ that can absorb 50 to 60 times its weight in oil. Hale Products SAM control system HURST Jaws of Life demonstrated eDRAULIC 3.0, a new underwater power extrication tool The SAM control system, by Hale Products, is gaining in popularity, offering computerized/integrated water flow controls that manage a fire truck’s pump, tank, intakes and discharges using touch-screen display for simplified interface. The new SAM Smart Nozzle allows firemen to control flow from the end of the fire hose. HURST Jaws of Life demonstrated eDRAULIC 3.0, a new underwater power extrication tool that can withstand salt water. The Lifeline Firehose provides a source of continuous breathable air coming from the nozzle of a fire hose. The patented coupler design enables the continuous air supply, which can also be used to power air tools. Seeking to help small and medium fire departments replace paper documentation, incident management systems offer low-cost digitization. Environmental awareness From Rosenbauer A topic among fire apparatus companies is idle reduction systems designed to shut off the main engine in a fire apparatus when not needed, eliminating loud diesel engine noise and exhaust, while maintaining power for lighting and air conditioning, for example. It is a reflection of growing environmental concerns among fire manufacturers. For example, Rosenbauer’s Green Star system makes idle reduction easy, using electronic controls to shut down the chassis engine on-scene (if the fire pump is not engaged or no aerial operations under way), and starting a diesel-driven Auxiliary Power Unit (APU). Pierce Volterra zero-emissions pumpers The first Pierce Volterra zero-emissions pumper has been placed in service in Madison Pierce launched their Volterra platform of electric vehicles. The first Pierce Volterra zero-emissions pumper has been placed in service in Madison, Wisconsin. At FDIC International 2021, the Pierce booth included an electric vehicle technology kiosk and took attendees through the electric fire truck’s attributes. CMC Rescue Rope and Harness Systems CMC Rescue Inc. demonstrated rope and harness systems for rescue operations, including special duffle bags and access packs for easy transport of harnesses. The CMC Clutch is now available in 13 mm and 11 mm models, for hauling, lowering, ascending, descending, belaying and deploying twin-tension rope systems. The CMC Triskelion 10-foot tripod features rapid deployment, for example, over a hole where a rescue is taking place and is certified to NFPA (National Fire Protection Association) standards.

锂离子电池有助于全球废物发出
锂离子电池有助于全球废物发出

最近在英国Kirkdale垃圾场的回收设施中的最新火灾,在周日早些时候在北利物浦的天空中派出了烟雾。消防员们争取了12个小时的火焰,建议附近的居民在室内留下窗户关闭。大量的废料是炽热的,消防员使用了一台空中平台来达到一些截面的火灾。该活动代表了浪费和回收计划中火灾的挑战,这是一个重要的全球问题。垃圾,纸和塑料制品占几半的废物火灾。raybet炉石传说其他易于火的其他废物设施包括废金属,有机物,化学品,建筑和拆除(C&D)和e-Scrap。在美国,在2020年的废物和回收设施中报告了317名火灾,并在加州,俄亥俄州,德克萨斯州和纽约举行了大多数火灾。锂离子电池在废物流中的锂离子电池的贡献是全球废物火灾的一个因素,最近近期废物的原因是锂离子电池的使用(和处置)的升高。这些可充电电池在我们的便携式电子和电动汽车时代普遍存在。电池的内容物在压力下,因此任何穿刺都会在空气中产生反应,以产生热量,可以产生火。 There is also danger in the release of fluoride gases when the batteries ignite. Lithium-ion batteries in the waste stream are a factor in waste fires across the globe, including Japan, Austria, Sweden, France, German, the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada and the United States. Other Likely causes of waste fires Other causes of waste fires include aerosols, chemicals and butane cans; hot and dry environments; recycling of chemicals and hazardous materials; sparks from equipment; and arson. Some observers have suggested that the pandemic may have contributed to waste fires through the disposal of half-empty bottles of alcohol-based sanitizer, which are flammable. Enabling Early detection with thermal cameras Thermal cameras can be connected to sprinklers or automated fire doors to provide early response As the fire in Kirkdale illustrates, extinguishing a waste fire is time-consuming and resource-intensive. However, early detection can address the risk more efficiently. For example, thermals cameras can be used to monitor temperatures inside and outside a waste plant. The cameras can be programmed to provide an alarm when a predefined temperature is reached (as a warning), and again when a higher temperature is reached (an alarm). Smart algorithms enable these cameras to avoid false alarms triggered by, for example, sunlight or cars driving by. The cameras can also be used for routine inspections, for instance, to identify electrical faults, over-heating equipment and other potential ignition sources. Thermal cameras can also be connected to sprinklers or automated fire doors to provide early response. fire prevention plan Waste site managers should devise a fire prevention plan (FPP) that can minimize the likelihood of a fire, seek to extinguish fire within four hours, and minimize the spread of fire to neighboring areas. Fire is also used to manage and dispose of waste. As much as a billion tons of waste is burned in open and uncontrolled fires around the world each year, or almost half of the waste generated. Waste disposal fires typically burn at lower temperatures, and harmful substances such as dioxins can form when PVC plastic is burned, which can adversely affect human health. Burning plastics in open fires releases CO2 and other greenhouse gases, and plastics that are not totally burned can pollute nearby land and water. Burning waste can have negative consequences for the urban poor and waste pickers who are more likely to be exposed to it.

防火:成本和机会分析
防火:成本和机会分析

随着组织开始计划明年的经营预算,这是一个仔细观察防火的好时机,它的成本计算和它所提供的价值是什么。这是看与防火和寻找有关的政策和程序的完美时间,寻找改进和优化领域。为了帮助促进本讨论,我转向2017年消防研究基金会提出的报告,该报告基于从1980年至2014年收集的数据探讨了美国的总火灾成本。我欣赏数据的改善机雷竞技在哪里下载会该报告本身有点日期,提出了对火灾的实际成本的看法,优先事项基于花费并凸显改进机会。该报告定义了总火灾成本,作为消防事故导致的所有净支出的集体和所有净亏损。雷竞技在哪里下载该报告界定了总火灾成本,因为所有净消防净支出的集体良好的新闻是勤奋的工作,只能偿还损失,只有代表总成本的一小部分,预防为2731亿美元(占总数的83​​.1%)雷竞技在哪里下载,554亿美元(占总数的16.9%)。为了帮助运营商询问计划和预算我们挖掘数据的正确问题,并在2021/22中确定了您考虑的5个事实。雷竞技下载官方版防火投资事实#1在报告的14年期间,火灾总成本增加了50%,总损失减少了47%,总支出增加了140.6%。这告诉我,防火是优先价值,值得投资,它可以节省生命,从而减少整体丢失。但它还强调预算要求增长并可能继续增长。 Therefore, it is more important than ever before that we protect the investment in fire prevention, understand and maximize it, which as many knows is easier said than done! So, ask yourself, do you have a clear understanding of your investment, tools, and resources needed to stay safe and prevent fires? Do you have the data necessary to identify opportunities for improvement? Are you exposing operations to unnecessary risk? Fire grade products The costs of meeting the required standards within the system are passed down to the buyer Fact #2, Expenditure on fire grade products represent 16% of total costs at $54 B. This is the ‘cost of meeting ‘fire grade’ standards in the manufacture of equipment, particularly electrical systems equipment and ‘smart’ equipment with its greater use of computer components.’ These systems represent a significant investment for the operation, the costs of meeting the required standards within the system are passed down to the buyer and defines the quality of the system. Therefore, the question is, are the systems being properly maintained to maximize life span and ensure it maintains its fire grade standard? Are you adhering with manufacturer warranty requirements, will it work when needed? Large ongoing investment Fact #3, Expenditure on fire maintenance and fire retardants represents 13.4% of total costs at $44 B. This includes the ‘costs of fire maintenance, which was defined to include system maintenance, industrial fire brigades, and training programs for occupational fire protection and fire safety.’ Expenditure on fire maintenance and fire retardants represents 13.4% of total costs at $44 B Fire Retardants include the ‘costs of fire retardants and all product testing associated with design for fire safety.’ This represents a large ongoing investment in resources and budget for operations, the question is, are they being used efficiently, are they adhering to regulations, is the training being done? Is the money being well spent? Investment in fire prevention Fact #4, Expenditure on disaster planning and preparing/maintaining standards represent only 1.2% of total costs or $4 B. This represents the ‘costs of disaster recovery plans and backups’ and the ‘costs of preparing and maintaining standards.’ What jumps out at me on this one, is it appears to be a relatively small amount in relation to other areas, so the question becomes, is it being given the right priority, could we further reduce losses and maximize the investment in fire prevention if we improved how we planned for disasters and managed standards? Fire insurance expenditure Net fire insurance expenditure represents, 7% of total costs or $23.6 B Fact #5, Net fire insurance expenditure represents, 7% of total costs or $23.6 B. This is ‘defined as the difference between the insurance premiums paid by property owners (personal and commercial) for insuring their property from fire and the damages claimed from insurers.’ Which says investing in the insurance necessary to protect the operation has a sizable impact on the operating budget and you need it to be there and available if a fire strikes to ensure business continuity. Therefore, the questions to ask yourself are, if the insurance is needed, will you have the data to defend your claim? Or if it’s not needed because fire prevention is top notch, will you have the data to negotiate lower rates? How long will it take to compile the data necessary to support your argument, is the data believable? Other important questions There is no doubt, fire Prevention is an important and significant investment for organizations, but the question is, is there a better way of managing it, do you have the data necessary to ensure compliance with operating regulations, are staff operating efficiently, is the job getting done? Unfortunately for many, we simply don’t have the data necessary to answer these and many other important questions when it comes to planning and defending your operating budget. Fire prevention is complicated, the building code for commercial properties has over 200 pages Fire prevention is complicated, the building code for commercial properties has over 200 pages detailing the safety procedures, products and signs that must be installed and functioning 24hours a day, 7 days a week. That must be inspected and tested daily, weekly, monthly, yearly to reduce losses and improve safety. Fire prevention policies The challenge is not in understanding what must be done but in how we manage it. Many organizations are still relying on spreadsheets and signing off the ticket on the fire extinguisher for tracking and monitoring fire prevention procedures. Hoping that when a faulty, missing, or broken fire extinguisher gets identified that the right people are informed, that the issue gets addressed. This lack of visibility presents a lot of opportunities for something to go wrong, and when it does have dire consequences. It is our belief that it is time to digitally transform how we manage fire safety and procedures. Relying on the ways of yesterday, are no longer going to cut it and are actually exposing operations to more risk and cost than is necessary. Technology has evolved in ways that enable operations to cost-effectively eliminate the fear, uncertainty, and doubt in fire prevention policies and procedures and have the data to prove it!

vfd.