我们的世界充满了“挤出”。他们是海豹经营小型和不那么小的横截面,架桥机的复杂组件和运动部件一起,帮助他们,让他们的工作秩序。

有许多不同类型的挤压,它们的功能的多样性经常使它们处于可能导致电气火灾的情况下,并使它们在预防方面很重要。挤压件通常也由不同的材料制成,这些材料的质量也会影响如何保护环境免受火灾风险。

硅酮的好处

一种更适合防火的材料之一是有机硅。有机硅是一种吹掉水的人类化合物,是电绝缘,极度耐高温,重要的是,可以配制成阻燃剂。

这些品质和更是,越来越多地,制备硅酮首选材料为挤压制造,至少在由于这些优点的一部分。这当然,在安全方面还有很多工作要做——没有环境可以安全的,毕竟只有具有最高耐受极度温度的其他橡胶是viton,但在暴露于燃料类型时,这种类型的材料是最佳的。在其他(大多数)情况下,硅胶可以说是优越的品质。

耐热阻燃吗?

有两种不同类型的硅胶挤出,在谈论防火安全时通常会混淆:硅胶挤出耐热那些是那些阻燃。前者在高温下制造并保持其机械性能。作为烤箱门密封的有机硅挤出将是耐热挤出类型的示例。这些等级的硅氧烷可以承受的最高温度约为300℃。

特异性地配制阻燃硅氧烷是自熄的。被证明为阻燃剂,材料受到指定时间的火焰。然后,材料必须通过最小燃烧距离,或在一定时间内熄灭。阻燃硅氧烷不能承受与耐热硅氧烷相同的极端温度,但通常具有更好的自灭火特性。它们往往达到200°C左右。

谈到消防安全,特别值得注意的是等级阻燃这些都是值得思考的。虽然硅树脂是天然耐热的,但它只在一定程度上耐热。特殊等级的挤压需要在高温地区发挥作用,如前面提到的烤箱门。但这并不能使它们等同于阻燃剂。

阻燃硅胶的行业等级

有几个等级的硅树脂,满足不同的阻燃要求,为特定的行业。包括:

  • UL-94.:这个等级在美国一般的标准,并且是在照明灯具等部件最常见的规定。
  • EN45545-2:这一级是铁路行业的标准,以及所有批量过境车辆(如公共汽车)的较小程度。例如,列车上使用的所有硅胶组件需要满足这一必要的标准。
  • 远/罐子25.823:这是在飞机制造业中使用的硅部件的阻燃标准。

除了自熄之外,阻燃硅氧烷等级的其他主要性质是它们具有低烟雾,低毒性质量。这意味着如果他们确实接触着火,随后被烧毁,它们不会释放大量的烟雾或有毒的烟雾。

低烟,低毒性橡胶是自1987年悲惨的国王交叉站火灾以来一直是法律要求。从中燃烧橡胶和烟雾谈到消防安全,特别值得注意的是等级阻燃这些都是值得思考的其他材料有助于死亡。

正如上述标准所暗示的,阻燃硅酮通常在航空航天工业、汽车和铁路(以及更广泛的公共交通)工业、消费品和照明制造基地中被发现。他们也出现在紧急服务部门;通常是在车辆中,包括救护车和消防车。

为什么阻燃型材重要?

用于办公空间和日常家庭用品增加的趋势是为他们越来越依赖于合成碳基聚合物中的家具,织物,外壳电气设备和作为表面涂层对其它材料的形式,仅举几例。的碳基聚合物意味着它们的存在是在火灾的情况下,潜在危险的高燃料值。

通过阻燃硅胶挤压将机械和移动部件的组件连接在一起,它们的物质减少了在这些机器中发生火灾并蔓延开来的可能性——并对环境中日常使用的碳基聚合物造成灾难性破坏。

作为办公用房和日常家居用品增加的趋势是让他们越来越依赖于合成碳基聚合物重要的是,挤出中使用的阻燃硅氧烷等级对人体健康无害,并且在任何情况下,暴露于它们是最小的。虽然有些人可以在可见区域,如列车的门密封,大多数大多数都位于机械内,并且不倾向于在开放中出来。

防火和未来

硅树脂可能是最好的材料挤出制造出来,在防范和防止火灾危险。但在防止类似国王十字车站事件这样的悲剧发生方面,再完美不过了。

这就是为什么硅胶的标准不断被修订和改进的原因。一直以来,硅胶等级越来越多地在实验室环境中进行测试,并进行调整以提高其性能。标准的优先事项是:我们如何使这种材料更有可能帮助减少火灾和扩大火势?怎样才能进一步减少燃烧时所排放的烟和烟雾呢?

但是,尽管在安全方面肯定有更多的工作要做——没有环境可以毕竟是安全的——事实仍然是,在目前所有可用的选择中,最安全的选择是硅酮。

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国会重新提出的英雄法案将促进心理健康
国会重新提出的英雄法案将促进心理健康

心理健康保健是消防员和紧急医疗响应的要求。寻求解决需要的是帮助应急人员克服(HERO)法案提出的消防战士国际协会(IAFF)。在目前第117届美国国会中,31个立法者组成的两党小组由众议员阿米·贝拉(d-加利福尼亚州)和布赖恩·菲茨帕特里克LED(R-Pa。)的重新HERO的法案进入众议院。该提案此前已在众议院第116大会期间通过,但不能在参议院。HR1480是至关重要的解决增加精神卫生资源消防工作中的实际需要。参议院法案的同伴是由参议员杰克·罗森(d-内华达州)检测被重新引入,治疗和预防精神健康挑战的消防员和紧急医疗响应者的悲惨遭遇会导致心理上的伤害,甚至自杀“消防员和紧急医疗响应多次见证人类的创伤和破坏在他们的职业生涯中的场景,”国际消防员协会大会主席哈罗德Schaitberger说。“对消防员和应急医疗反应悲惨经历的累积收费会导致心理上的伤害,甚至自杀,”他补充道。“英雄法案将有助于确保应急人员得到必要的资源,以协助检测,治疗和预防心理健康的挑战,” Schaitberger说。IAFF的承诺IAFF,代表在美国和加拿大的支付专职消防队员和紧急医疗服务人员工会,先后担任心理健康和保健的领导者。 The HERO Act bolsters the IAFF commitment in four ways. Establishes a new grant program to train firefighters and peer counselors Directs the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to develop new guidance for fire departments on identifying and preventing post-traumatic stress disorder Directs the CDC to provide information to mental health professionals on the culture within fire departments and evidence-based therapies to treat psychological issues common to firefighters Creates a database to compile statistics on suicide among public safety officers Post-Traumatic Stress (PTS) Up to one-third of firefighters and emergency medical responders will demonstrate some or all of the criteria used to diagnose Post-Traumatic Stress (PTS). The rates of diagnosed PTS among firefighters and emergency medical responders vary due to inconsistencies in data collection; however, reported rates are between 16% and 37%. Peer-support behavioral health and wellness programs within fire departments will allow trained peer counselors to conduct outreach to firefighters and their families to assist with issues associated with PTS, substance abuse, and co-related conditions. Database And Guidance Establishing a specialized database to capture incidences of suicide among firefighters and other public safety officers will provide scientists information to examine PTS more fully and to understand broader mental health concerns. New guidance for departments will provide education on how to better identify and prevent PTS and co-occurring disorders in public safety officers. Meanwhile, new resources for mental health providers will promote understanding of the culture of fire departments and evidence-based therapies for common mental health issues.

消防员预防间皮瘤的10个贴士
消防员预防间皮瘤的10个贴士

消防员健康的风险每年可以稳步增加。虽然长期健康并发症不会阻止部门男女面对这些危害,但有些方法可以减少职业病的威胁。呼吸问题(如哮喘)是消防员在其任期中经历的最常见的健康问题之一。然而,其他,更严重的呼吸问题可能会在以后发展十年。1950年至2009年期间采用的消防员的研究显示出过量的膀胱,脑,食道,肠,肾,肺,前列腺,直肠,胃和睾丸癌症。新的研究还揭示了消防员之间的间皮瘤率的增加。10个间皮瘤预防秘诀,以防止发育严重的健康问题,美国的110万职业和志愿者消防员可以利用一些简单的策略。1.穿上适当的装备在接触烟雾中,消防消防员面临风险的大部分职业疾病会影响呼吸系统和消化道。风险源于导致通常通过鼻子或嘴或嘴进入身体的癌症颗粒。随着时间的推移,它们导致细胞中的DNA变化,肺部,胃,心脏腔内等。 Prevent inhaling or ingesting dangerous fumes, dust, and smoke by donning the proper self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) before beginning work. 2. Keep Work Gear Separate From Clothing, and Don’t Take Them Home Always keep your gear and clothing separate and avoid taking the gear home to prevent contaminating surfaces Through your normal firefighting activities, your gear will likely accumulate toxic particles after use. These carcinogens (i.e., cancer-causing agents) can be transferred to your clothing through simple contact. 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Dust and other pollutants can travel on your body, causing health problems for you and anyone you may come into close contact with. Secondary carcinogenic exposure typically occurs when firefighters bring home contaminants on their body or clothes. Once there, toxic particles may be transferred to fabrics on furniture, carpet, through the laundry machine, and through direct skin-to-skin contact (such as a hug). Wash your skin and hair fully, cleaning beneath your nails too, before going home to prevent unintentional exposure to family members. 5. Follow All Safety Guidelines When Working in Old Buildings, Crumbling Structures Though the use of asbestos (a material directly linked to lung cancer, asbestosis, and mesotheliomas) has dramatically declined since the 1980s, many older buildings still contain large amounts of the material in its insulation, wallboard, and cement. When the materials are mishandled or broken, asbestos fibers can be released into the air, then inhaled or ingested. Follow all safety rules when working in old buildings and crumbling structures to prevent disturbing and spreading asbestos. Replace any asbestos-containing gear with modern, safer versions to reduce your risk of hazardous exposure 6. Replace Old Gear When Recommended, and Replace Any Asbestos-containing Gear Due to the fireproofing qualities of asbestos, it was used as much in firefighting equipment as it was in construction products. Proximity suits, used to provide protection from extreme levels of heat, used a protective layer of asbestos since the 1930s before eventually being phased out of the fabric. Over time and through repeated use, old firefighting equipment and gear may break, tear, or flake, and expose users to asbestos. Replace any asbestos-containing gear with modern, safer versions to reduce your risk of hazardous exposure. 7. Play Close Attention to Your Health and Note Any Changes While following cancer prevention tips can reduce your risk of developing health problems, catching an illness early can also benefit your long-term health. If you notice any changes in your physical, mental, and emotional health, take note of their frequency and severity. Next, make an appointment with your primary care provider as soon as possible to discuss them. For example, if you experience a dry cough for at least eight weeks, you could be experiencing the early symptoms of chronic lung disease. Some respiratory illnesses are reversible and treating them as soon as possible may give you the best prognosis. 8. Make Regular Health Screening Appointments Maintaining a regular schedule of health screenings helps catch abnormalities in their earliest stages Firefighters are regularly exposed to toxic gases, fumes, and dust that can cause respiratory diseases up to 40 years later. Consequently, in many cases of occupational cancer, the individual is not aware of internal growing tumors until it’s too late. By maintaining a regular schedule of health screenings, you may be able to catch abnormalities in their earliest stages. Lung cancer, for example, is considered easiest to treat (and potentially cure) when caught in stages 1 or 2. Advanced-stage lung cancers, on the other hand, may only be treated with palliative care options. 9. Don’t Smoke Smoking tobacco cigarettes not only causes its own long-term health problems, but the habit can also increase cancer risks caused by occupational exposure. Developing mesothelioma, for example, is a greater risk for smokers. Too, smoking can worsen symptoms of respiratory disease (such as cough and difficulty breathing). The International Association of Fire Fighters maintains a page of resources to campaign for smoke-free unions. Other members of the department, family, and friends may be needed to help an individual quit smoking. 10. Research the Latest Safety Protocols The field of fire safety is constantly expanding with new tools and techniques. As recent events continue to reshape the lives of people worldwide, the future of firefighting may likewise change. Continuously researching the latest safety protocols and technology can help protect your overall health for years to come.

消防员在极端温度下面临额外的挑战
消防员在极端温度下面临额外的挑战

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变频