这场全球大流行给消防员带来了麻烦,因为这可能是一个活跃的野火季节。大流行可能会减少消防人员;培训课程已被取消、推迟或远程进行。旅行风险也破坏了从全国或世界各地召集消防员帮助扑灭野火的传统做法。

社交距离与消防单位的团队精神和友情格格不入。在大流行期间,所有人一起吃饭和睡觉的公共营地是不可行的。取而代之的是更小的营地,打包的食物被送到每个营地。如果有人测试新的冠状病毒,较小的团队可以减少广泛检疫的需求。

日常健康检查

每天的健康检查确保每个人都保持健康。温度检查,增强的清洁时间表和更多个人防护设备(PPE)是规则。

野火对空气质量造成的损失对任何COVID-19患者或任何有风险的人来说都是一个负面的健康因素。疾病的可能传播使避难人员的后勤工作复杂化。健康咨询是远程完成的,共享季度的婴儿床进一步间隔开。

COVID-19野火指南

美国疾病控制预防中心(CDC)等医学专家制定了新冠病毒火灾安全指南,并提出了消防人员检查、检测、保持社交距离的建议。COVID-19还表现出与野火烟雾暴露相同的一些呼吸道症状

根据CDC,暴露于野火烟雾中的空气污染物可以刺激肺部,引起炎症,改变免疫功能,并增加对呼吸道感染的敏感性,可能包括Covid-19。Covid-19还列出了一些与野火烟暴露的呼吸道症状相同的呼吸道症状 - 干咳,喉咙痛,呼吸困难。

扑灭森林大火的总体方法受到疫情的影响。自2000年代初以来,该战略一直允许一些野火作为恢复森林恢复活力的自然部分。

“基熊”方法

现在,更多的火灾可能会被迅速扑灭,而不是冒着失去控制的风险,因为可能没有足够的消防员。空中消防的使用将扩大,作为一种减少对地面消防人员需求的手段这种直接抑制模式——也被称为“冒烟熊”方法——使火灾足够小,由当地资源管理,而不需要从其他地区增加消防员。使用空中消防将扩展为一种方法,以尽量减少对地面消防员的需求。

美国国家跨部门消防中心预测,今年从6月到9月的野火季节,西南部和太平洋西北部地区的野火会比以往更多。由于对冠状病毒的担忧,美国林业局暂停了用于防止更大规模野火的可控燃烧。今年秋天的干燥天气将使火灾更有可能迅速蔓延。

城市/郊区的野火

尤其令人担忧的是城市或郊区边界地区的野火,即所谓的荒野-城市界面。这些情况是家庭(和生命)面临最大风险的时候。消防官员和志愿者在历史上帮助了房主地解决了带有干刷等码之类的风险,但今年的帮助是通过视频通话远程提供的帮助,这是一种较差的方法。

5月底亚利桑那州锯齿山火的消防结果令人乐观。为了应对本季度的第一次野火,出动了399名消防员。他们练习保持社交距离,戴口罩,睡在当地的酒店。4至20名消防员组成的小团队帮助减少了身体接触和病毒传播。Zoom会议有助于协调工作。一名医务干事在现场确保遵守指导方针。最终报告判断保护和安全记录的有效性为“非凡”。

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拉里•安德森
拉里•安德森编辑器中,TheBigRedGuide.com,诺丁山媒体

以防你错过了

消防设备的新趋势是什么?
消防设备的新趋势是什么?

设备是灭火和保证消防人员安全的重要因素。但是什么新的需求正在推动设备的发展呢?设备如何扩大其在灭火或管理建筑物占用和交通流量方面的作用?我们向我们的专家小组圆桌会议提问:消防设备的新趋势和机遇是什么?

当一个全球大流行碰撞有活跃的野火季节
当一个全球大流行碰撞有活跃的野火季节

这场全球大流行给消防员带来了麻烦,因为这可能是一个活跃的野火季节。大流行可能会减少消防人员;培训课程已被取消、推迟或远程进行。旅行风险也破坏了从全国或世界各地召集消防员帮助扑灭野火的传统做法。社交距离与消防单位的团队精神和友情格格不入。在大流行期间,所有人一起吃饭和睡觉的公共营地是不可行的。取而代之的是更小的营地,打包的食物被送到每个营地。如果有人测试新的冠状病毒,较小的团队可以减少广泛检疫的需求。每日健康检查日常健康检查确保每个人都保持健康。温度检查,增强的清洁时间表和更多个人防护设备(PPE)是规则。 The toll of wildfires on air quality is a negative health factor for anyone suffering from COVID-19, or anyone at risk. Possible spread of the disease complicates the logistics of sheltering evacuees. Health counseling is done remotely, and cots in shared quarters are spaced further apart. COVID-19 Wildfire Guidelines Medical experts, including the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), have developed COVID-19 safety guidelines for wildfire operations and recommendations for firefighter screening, testing and social distancing.COVID-19 also presents some of the same respiratory symptoms as wildfire smoke exposure Exposure to air pollutants in wildfire smoke can irritate the lungs, cause inflammation, alter immune function and increase susceptibility to respiratory infections, likely including COVID-19, according to the CDC. COVID-19 also presents some of the same respiratory symptoms as wildfire smoke exposure – dry cough, sore throat, and difficulty breathing. The overall approach to fighting wildfires is being impacted by the pandemic. Since the early 2000s, the strategy has been to allow some wildfires to burn across large areas as a natural part of rejuvenating the forest. “Smokey Bear” Method Now, more fires will likely be extinguished quickly rather than risk them getting out of control when there may not be enough firefighters. Use of aerial firefighting will expand as a means to minimize the need for firefighters on the groundThis direct-suppression model – also known as the “Smokey Bear” method – keeps fires small enough to be managed by local resources rather than needing additional firefighters from other areas. Use of aerial firefighting will expand as a means to minimize the need for firefighters on the ground. The National Interagency Fire Center predicts that this year’s wildfire season, which extends from June to September, will see more wildfires than usual in the Southwest and Pacific Northwest. Because of coronavirus concerns, the U.S. Forest Service has suspended controlled burns, which are used to prevent larger wildfires. Dry weather this fall will make fires more likely to spread quickly. Wildfires in Urban/Suburban Neighborhoods Particularly of concern are wildfires in areas that border urban or suburban neighborhoods, the so-called wildland-urban interface. These situations are when homes (and lives) are most at risks. Fire officials and volunteers have historically helped homeowners address risks such as yards with dry brush, but this year the help is being offered remotely with video calls, which is a less effective approach. There is some optimism in the firefighting results at the Sawtooth Fire in Arizona in late May. In response to the first wildfire of the season, 399 firefighters were deployed. They practiced social distancing, wore masks, and slept in local hotels. Smaller teams of four to 20 firefighters helped to minimize physical interaction and virus transmissions. Zoom meetings helped with coordination. A medical officer was on site to ensure guidelines were followed. The final report judged the effectiveness of the protections and safety record as “remarkable.”

火灾探测:保护食品和杂货店
火灾探测:保护食品和杂货店

在这些挑战时间内,它比以往任何时候都更重要,以保护食物供应链,包括世界各地城市的超市和便利店。根据NFPA(国家消防协会)发布的一份报告,平均每年在美国的食品和杂货店(包括超市和便利店)的食品和杂货店发生了3,740次火灾。雷竞技在哪里下载Mercintile Properies的结构燃烧负责12个生命的损失和超过6亿美元的间接财产损失,这并没有考虑业务中断的成本和对商店声誉的影响。许多商店在火灾之后无法恢复。该报告估计,单次火灾平均可能会花费46,000美元,其中在后威尔比投资在火灾探测系统中得多。超市中最常见的火灾原因是从两种不同的角度来看数据很重要。首先是原因的火灾数,另一个是通过原因量化属性损耗。该报告估计,烹饪设备造成的平均火灾可能会花费46,000美元,包括带厨房和暖气和便携式设备的商店,占21%的公告,但仅占房地产损失的7%和四个平民死亡人数消防员和第一个响应者死亡在不同的报告中注册。另一方面,电气分配和照明设备发生故障和有缺陷的布线占给定年份总火灾总量的15%,但造成了1.65亿美元的财产损失,或报告中记录的总量的27%。提及故意火灾是第三次报告的原因也很重要,占总火灾总额的11%,报告中突出的财产损失的20%。 Occupation, materials and risks The kind of store poses a significant variety of risks associated to the type of occupation, the number of occupants and the materials stored and available in the shopping areas. It’s possible to find combustible materials of diverse nature and propagation speed. Cardboard and paper wrapping can be found in all store areas, including book and magazine stands. Cleaning products, oils and fatty products might have a high propagation speed. All of this, surrounded by different kind of plastics, immensely increase the level of risk. Overall, combustible liquids caused 41% of the civilian deaths recorded during the report In my firefighting years I’ve responded to several fires in food supermarkets and distribution centers, and saw tuna cans (canned with oil) exploding and spreading flames to the surrounding areas. Regarding occupation, it is known that supermarkets and groceries stores are places with high levels of occupation, especially during working hours. But one interesting fact that the report found is that fires occurring between 9pm and 5am can cause, on average, $73,800 in property damage. The NFPA estimates that 21% of human life losses happened between 12am and 3am. This highlights the importance of installing and maintaining an automatic fire detection system. Installing fire detection And Protecting Your Store With the variety of materials and the risk level that can be found in this kind of environment, it’s necessary to take a holistic approach. Fire protection should be designed while considering several angles, from passive protection in all interior and exterior structures and cladding to active protection with sprinkler and clean agent systems, proper ventilation and smoke control and automatic fire detection and evacuation systems. On average 3,740 fires occur in food and groceries stores in the US annually Several detection technologies need to work in parallel, depending on the type of products stored, the environment and the expected level of occupation on the protected area. Store height and ventilation need to be taken into consideration and also the kind of lighting in some cases. Depending on the ceiling height, the shopping floor could be protected with beam smoke detectors. If the ceiling is below six meters, or the store shelves obstruct the beam, it’s possible to use spot type smoke detectors. The same approach can be taken for warehousing and storage areas, but here I would recommend multi-criteria detectors, with heat and smoke detection combined. localized protection As I’ve mentioned before, cooking areas have an increased level of risk, which calls for localized protection. Here, I would recommend multi-criteria (smoke/heat) detectors for areas where food is heated and served, and smoke/heat/Carbon monoxide detectors on cooking areas to avoid nuisance alarms caused by cooking smoke and steam. It’s important to mention that until this year it was possible to install heat detection in cooking areas, but the UL 268 7th edition that comes into effect in 2021 will require cooking areas to be protected with smoke detection, and smoke detectors have to be able to reject nuisance alarms caused by cooking smoke and steam. Smaller supermarkets and convenience stores usually have vertical freezers or horizontal open freezers. Here, electrical and mechanical failures can ignite fires, which is why it is important to protect the rear side of the freezers. I would recommend point-type smoke detectors, as photoelectric smoke detectors tend to perform better on smoldering fires. The report mentions that air conditioning equipment and electrical equipment can be sources of ignition as well. To protect A/C rooms and electrical rooms I would recommend combined smoke/heat detectors, or maybe even smoke/heat/CO to assure better detection and avoid unwanted alarms in these business critical areas. There is a type of photoelectric smoke detector that uses two different LED sources inside the smoke chamber. This technology, called Dual-Ray, allows the smoke detector to identify the particles inside the chamber by size. The detector knows if it is sensing dust or steam, and can even differentiate between cooking or cigarette smoke from actual smoke from a smoldering fire. Bosch Building Technologies first introduced dual Ray technology in 2015. protecting the food supply chain During these challenging times, it’s more important than ever to protect the food supply chain and avoid the social and economic impact of fires in food stores, especially in impoverished areas. Supermarkets and convenience stores present a variety of challenges regarding fire protection, which calls for a holistic approach where passive and active protection are equally important. To achieve this target, one key element is automatic fire detection. Smoke and heat sensing technologies must be combined, and one size-fits-all approach is not enough. Detection and effective evacuation are critical to protect lives and minimize property loss.

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