新冠肺炎疫情给县市政府带来了新的经济挑战。由于地方政府采取冻结支出、冻结招聘和削减开支的措施应对经济低迷,消防部门可能会受到影响。一些地方政府希望得到州和/或联邦政府的帮助。

虽然一些政府有“雨天基金”来应对经济衰退,但并非所有政府都有。此外,当前经济危机的程度可能超过我们最担心的。一些消防和EMS部门的预算削减幅度在10%到25%之间。随着新的财政年度将于7月开始,许多地方政府将需要在6月30日前批准明年的支出计划。

公共安全机构

尽管公共安全机构历来在经济低迷时期受到地方政府的保护,但当前经济低迷的严重程度可能会改变这种做法。预计较低的销售税征收将是一个重大影响,尽管有关收入水平的实际信息可能会滞后三个月,因为州政府收取销售税,然后将一部分返还给市和县。

这个南加州城市和美国其他许多依赖销售税和酒店税的城市一样

对许多人来说,4月份的数据将在7月份公布。例如,加州Hemet估计,在COVID-19大流行期间,由于消费者支出下降,许多企业对公众关闭,该公司损失了34%的销售税收入。酒店税的损失是另一个困难。这个南加州城市和美国其他许多依赖销售税和酒店税的城市一样。

更换老化的消防车

加州城市联盟(League of California Cities)表示,在未来两个财政年度,COVID-19将夺走该州482个城镇约67亿美元的收入。芝加哥伊利诺伊大学政府金融研究中心主任迈克尔·帕加诺说,依赖销售税收入的市政当局正迅速受到沉重打击。他说,相比之下,那些依赖房产税的人不会立即感受到影响。

赫米特的消防部门也受到了影响。去年,该市支付了100万美元的加班费。今年勒紧裤腰带将消除这类开支。该市还可能推迟填补一些空缺职位,只更换一辆老化的消防车,而不是两辆。他们将购买更少的安全设备和无线电设备。德克萨斯州的维多利亚是另一个受到销售税损失影响的城市。

消防战士工会

“对人们来说,不让他们的垃圾被清理并不是一种选择,”维多利亚市经理杰西·加尔扎告诉《维多利亚倡导者》。“我们的警察和消防员不能不工作。”没有明确的目标,没有简单的解决方案。一些情况,如工资冻结,会影响消防队员工会的成员。巴尔的摩国际消防队员协会(Baltimore 's International Association of Fire Fighters Local 734)的总统表示,这种讨论还为时过早。

我们知道,该市必须在7月前平衡预算,每个人都受到这场全球流行病的严重打击。”

“我们知道,这座城市必须在7月前平衡预算,每个人都受到这场全球流行病的严重打击,”当地消防员工会主席Richard Altieri II告诉《巴尔的摩太阳报》。“但建议我们每天都在前线的成员做出这样的牺牲,是不可接受的,也令人沮丧。”巴尔的摩已经考虑总共削减大约1100万美元,这可能会影响到急救人员。

冠状病毒救援包

加州州长纽森(Gavin Newsom)警告说,除非华盛顿向州政府提供财政援助,否则警察和消防员可能会被裁员。美国众议院批准了3万亿美元的冠状病毒救援计划,其中包括8750亿美元的州和联邦援助。然而,民主党起草的法案在美国参议院没有任何进展。

“(将)会有更少的消防员和警察来接听紧急电话,减少垃圾收集的频率,并限制必要的检查、处理营业执照和许可证的工作人员,”加州城市联盟代表尼古拉斯·罗莫(Nicolas Romo)告诉《萨克拉门托蜜蜂报》(Sacramento Bee)。

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拉里•安德森编辑器中,TheBigRedGuide.com,诺丁山媒体

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降低隧道运作中的火灾风险
降低隧道运作中的火灾风险

由于其设计和用途的性质,隧道具有特别独特的火灾风险,任何火灾都可以迅速传播,危险资产或团队伤害。采矿,电缆和通信隧道受到明显高风险的影响,因为它们利用了重型机械,易燃材料和电缆,这些易燃材料和电缆都受到过热的产生。在这里,我们讨论了隧道中的普遍的火灾风险,并解释了他们内部运营的企业如何评估和减轻这些风险。导致隧道中的火灾安全风险提升了什么?缺乏自然通风:隧道的封闭设计导致缺乏自然通风,使其难以调节温度。由于重型机械在隧道内长时间运行,这会导致大量的火灾风险。横跨弯曲天花板的烟雾:隧道通常用弯曲的天花板结构构建。这增强了沿着天花板的烟雾扩散,导致覆盖天花板的整个表面积。当烟雾的温度减少时 - 一旦火灾被熄灭 - 它可以沉入人眼水平,增加吸入的风险。有限的通道:隧道通常密封并限制,通道有限。 This means that if a fire breaks out in a particular area of the tunnel, access points can be restricted, proving evacuation to be challenging. As a result, evacuation may be limited to a singular route – the same route for people and smoke. Heightened risk of structural damage: The sealed and confined nature of tunnels means that temperatures, caused by uncontrolled fires, can reach up to 140°C. These severe temperatures can cause structural damage to tunnels if left unresolved. What are the fire risks in tunnels? Ignition sources: Ignition sources are commonplace in tunnel environments. Vehicles (powered by lithium-ion batteries), heaters and electrical sources, which power equipment and machinery, such as conveyor belts, all present significant fire risks if not correctly monitored. Overheating: Nearly half of all fires in industrial environments are caused by the overheating of electrical equipment. This can be as a result of overuse or even poor maintenance. In manufacturing tunnels, machinery, such as conveyor belts, is continuously used to support operations. If unmonitored, the friction in belts can begin to heat, potentially igniting the materials they carry. Additionally, if industrial machinery reaches high temperatures, it can speed up the propagation process of a fire, especially when in contact with flammable materials, such as coal, wood or dust. Maintenance of equipment: Tunnels of all kinds use machinery to support operations, such as mining, transportation of goods or maintenance work. Due to the lack of ventilation, dust is commonplace, and its build-up can cause clogging in this machinery, amplifying the risk of overheating. Depending on its material, dust can be highly flammable. Combustible materials: Combustible materials are frequently present in tunnels, particularly in mining tunnels. These materials create a prominent fire risk, due to their extremely flammable natural, making it crucial to ensure they are transported and stored safely. Electrical faults: Some tunnels, such as cable tunnels, store lengthy networks of cables, which have the potential to cause fires. A lack of maintenance or heat can increase this risk significantly. So, how can you reduce fire risks in tunnels? Regular risk assessments By conducting regular risk assessments, you can identify any potential fire risks and put the appropriate measures in place to control these. Once a risk assessment has been conducted, it is important to share the results with team members, so they are aware and can act safely to further reduce risk. Temperature checks As overheating is a considerable risk in tunnels, it’s crucial to ensure temperature is continually monitored. This allows you to act to reduce temperatures if they reach or exceed a certain limit, before a fire breaks out. Regular equipment maintenance Regular maintenance of all electrical equipment within a tunnel is key Equipment should be subject to regular maintenance and testing to HSE standards. This will ensure you identify any issues early, allowing you to rectify problems to reduce fire risk. Equipment should also be regularly cleaned to decrease the risk of dust build-up. Any electrical equipment used to support operations should be subject to regular PAT testing (portable appliance testing) and checked for any loose cables or damage. Temperature regulation within the tunnel can also limit the effects of exterior heating on cabling. In cable tunnels, where there is a lot of electrical equipment present, these regular checks are paramount to ensuring safety. Storage and transportation of materials When combustible materials are transported, they should be subject to appropriate controls and measures to ensure they do not present fire risks. For example, combustible materials should be safely stored during transport and subject to regular temperature monitoring to quickly identify the occurrence of any hot spots. Electrical faults Regular maintenance of all electrical equipment within a tunnel is key for mitigating fire risk, as if a fire is to begin within a ‘hidden area’, such as in cable ducts, it can be difficult to access or control the flames. To reduce the risk of cables overheating, the temperature should be consistently monitored to highlight any high temperatures which may result in a fire. Using fire detection and suppression equipment to enhance safety Putting appropriate measures in place can actively reduce fire risks within tunnels. However, unnoticed hotspots, overheating between regular maintenance or combustion of flammable materials are all still prevalent fire risks. As such, supporting your fire prevention measures with a rigorous fire detection and suppression system is key. Overheating is a considerable risk in tunnels If a fire were to break out, detection it early is crucial for allowing the safe evacuation of teams and decreasing the risk of structural and equipment damage. As every tunnel is unique, the fire detection and suppression system must be bespoke and tailored to the site’s individual uses and risks. There is no ‘one-size-fits-all’ approach.

通过预防技术避免电气火灾
通过预防技术避免电气火灾

建筑物及其经理面临的日常风险很多,电火火是最常见和最危险的火灾之一。商业火灾影响乘员健康,财产和业务本身 - 25%的企业遭受火灾永不重新开放。鉴于电气火灾的经常无法预测性质,企业必须投资最新技术,以防止无法弥补的损坏。顾问工程师有责任表明领导和倡议,以改善安全,以保护业务,员工及其最宝贵资产。工程师必须超越简单地处理过载和短路,并检查一系列可以在甚至有机会开始之前停止火灾的连接解决方​​案。这大幅降低了损坏和维修的成本,同时为建筑运营商无与伦比的知名度提供了损害。连接的保护在电路的每个级别至关重要,从交换机到分布。用于设备监控和检测的集中系统提供了建筑物管理人员,其中包含他们所需的所有信息,以便在控制下保持火灾风险,从而保护员工,财产和业务。电气火灾风险意识在设计和实施阶段,顾问工程师的角色传统上尊重和掌握当地标准。它们应确保电路的所有组件和部分符合最新的布线规则,电气和建筑码。 Yet for enhanced safety they should also be willing to look beyond the standards of the day. Given the often-unpredictable nature of electrical fires, businesses must invest in the latest technologies to prevent irreparable damage Today’s regulations do a good job of protecting buildings from the dangers of short circuits and overloads, mostly by mandating the use of circuit breakers. However, consultant engineers should also be aware of the risks posed by circuit deterioration and mistakes made during the installation. Loose cabling and faulty insulation or connections – even something as small as an untightened screw – can significantly increase a circuit’s fire risk. It’s up to consultant engineers to know their market and provide solutions that go beyond the minimum to detect and prevent electrical fires. Why electrical engineers must go the extra mile A stitch in time saves nine. While tackling overloads and short circuits is crucial, engineers must go further, examining a range of connected solutions that can stop a fire before it even has a chance to begin. Acting pre-emptively can drastically reduce the cost of damages and repairs and provide building operators with unrivalled visibility of their facility. Connected protection is crucial at every level of the circuit, from the switchboard to distribution. A centralized system for equipment monitoring and detection will provide the building manager with all the information they need to keep fire risk under control. Connected protection is crucial at every level of the circuit For optimal protection, organisations should employ smart, connected solutions that detect fire and the risk of fire at every level. This means additional protection for the switchboard and the circuit at all levels of the electrical installation, underpinned by a centralised system for monitoring and pro-active action. Using Residual Current Devices (RCDs) against insulation faults triggered by earth leakage currents exceeding 300mA, is a familiar solution. Engineers now have access to more effective earth leakage protection solutions with the same footprint as a classical overload and short-circuit protection. Products can now also offer permanent earth leakage current measurement which, when connected to a monitoring system, allows pre-alarming and monitoring during the time of any drift in the insulation. Identify switchboard vulnerabilities Unprotected electrical switchboards are especially vulnerable to fire risk. The equipment is susceptible to rodent infestation and internal overheating, issues that can often go unnoticed until it is too late. The IEC 61439-2 Low-voltage switchgear and control gear assemblies – Part 2: Power switchgear and control gear assembly’s standard addresses these risks, making compliance a must. However, fulfilling these design and manufacturing rules for switchboards does not eliminate the risk of connection failure. A critical sequence of events can occur. First, increasing electrical contact resistance accelerates further deterioration. This increased resistance induces a rise in temperature – high temperatures deteriorate the connection surface even more. The more deteriorated surface leads to a further increase in contact resistance, and the resulting thermal runaway will cause complete connection failure. Fire, flash-over and explosions become a real risk. Enhanced electrical fire prevention Moreover, final circuits should be protected by an arc fault detection device (AFDD) for enhanced fire prevention. Final circuits should be protected by an arc fault detection device (AFDD) Circuits age unevenly and unpredictably, so persistent monitoring and predictive maintenance are key to limiting fire risk. Cloud analytics can help provide asset health analytics to interpret the status and history of your most critical assets, with preventive notifications and 24/7 support. Fire prevention must be a top priority when assessing all the safety and risk-management of a building. In the case of electrical fires, prevention is better than cure. Therefore, establishing the right approach before crisis strikes will be invaluable. Connected solutions across the entire circuit are an effective solution for consultant engineers to defend buildings from the often-underestimated dangers of faulty installation and ageing components. In short, smart electrical fire prevention provides peace of mind for engineers, facility owners and occupants alike.

建筑物疏散:集成在消防面板和声音报警,让更快的反应时,每一秒计数
建筑物疏散:集成在消防面板和声音报警,让更快的反应时,每一秒计数

在一个基于IP的平台上结合火灾报警和语音疏散加速了应急响应并解锁了广泛的效率收益。这种进化继续具有新一代火灾报警面板。每个建筑物和安全经理的主要任务之一包括在最佳地为紧急情况做好准备。这包括具有正确的协议,以便火灾,以确保每秒计数时可以尽可能快地疏散建筑物。对于最佳响应,运营商尽可能多地实现现场情境;尽可能快地。关键信息包括火源的确切位置和直接附近的火源和当前温度水平。此外,还概述了最关键的房间和地板,需要优先疏散。在理想的世界中,该信息可在中心位置提供,例如控制室,所有紧急响应都是针对性和协调的。And even more ideally, the building’s fire alarm and voice evacuation systems should not only be connected and integrated – they should also deliver alerts and status reports on the same platform in a coordinated manner.For an optimal response, operators need as much live situational intelligence as possible; as fast as possible In reality, most buildings lack this level of integration and synchronization in their disparate fire alarm and voice evacuation systems. Some buildings run on patchwork solution in which both systems may be controlled in a single location, but entirely without integration whatsoever. This not only creates challenges in terms of installation and maintenance of these systems. In the worst case, the lack of integration can cost valuable seconds in response time. But system integration between fire and voice alarm solutions has not only come a long way in recent years. As the latest evolution, a new generation of fire panels helps to connect and control both systems on a single interface, thereby opening the door to immediate efficiency improvements and future innovations. Connecting IP-Based Fire Alarm and Voice Evacuation Systems For the past few years, Bosch has been offering connections between IP-based fire alarm and voice evacuation systems as a standard, out-of-the-box feature. The “Smart Safety Link” is an interface that creates a connection between fire and voice alarm systems. As a direct, plug-and-play connection, it replaces workaround solutions or relay-based connections limited to single evacuation zones in the building. As the direct takeaways from a systems architecture perspective, the Smart Safety Link requires far less cables and significantly reduces installation costs and timelines. Bosch has been offering connections between IP-based fire alarm and voice evacuation systems as a standard, out-of-the-box featureAnd by creating the connection on an IP-based architecture, the system constantly monitors the health and status of all connected devices. For operators, this significantly increases the system’s overall reliability while lowering the risk for false alarms. It also allows for replacing or repairing components as needed, right when failures happen or become imminent. The resulting systems architecture is not only more stable and reliable, but also far less complex in terms of set-up. Depending on the size of the building, one or more voice alarm systems can also be connected to the fire alarm control panels. The direct connection via Smart Safety Link eliminates the need for including additional interface modules to accommodate a voice evacuation connection, thereby keeping investment costs low. Targeted Evacuation by Building Zones Beyond the ease and efficiency of setting up a building’s alarm systems, the connection between fire alarm and voice evacuation on a single platform significantly improves emergency responses: Firstly, in case of a fire alarm the Smart Safety Link allows for voice-guided evacuation of a building by separate zones. This allows for addressing rooms and building floors closest to the fire source first, starting with the evacuation of the most endangered building occupants. This not only supports an orderly evacuation response but also helps to avoid panic and additional complications.Studies state that using voice evacuation with clear instructions creates significant time gains Secondly, the integration makes evacuations much faster overall in situations when time is of the essence. Studies such as David Canter’s “Fire and Human Behavior” clearly state that using voice evacuation with clear instructions creates significant time gains of up to 30 percent for emergency response teams compared to a non-voice alarm signal. And thirdly, the Smart Safety Link also allows for a wide range of automated emergency responses, for instance pre-recorded voice evacuation messages directing occupants of different zones to their respective nearest exits. Supported by strobes, guide lights and clear signage, this automatic combination of fire alarm and voice instructions allows operators to focus on the big picture and monitor the situation in real-time. Evolving the Link Between Fire and Voice Alarm While the integration between fire alarm and voice evacuation via Smart Safety Link has been a widely adopted feature for several years now, with constant gains in efficiency and ease of use, the evolution continues. Bosch recently released a new generation of panels that provide the foundation for immediate new functionality as well as a platform for future technologies guided by Smart Building and Internet of Things (IoT) principles.Bosch recently released a new generation of panels that provide the foundation for immediate new functionality Continuing the proven, modular concept of its predecessors, the new “Avenar” panels provide an intuitive user interface, simplified planning and streamlined purchasing process for operators and system integrators. The panels work with existing fire alarm system components, but offer enhanced scalability, computing power and functionality for future applications. Most of all, the Avenar series creates a single point of access and control for personnel and operators while putting both the voice alarm and fire alarm system components at their fingertips. A Combined Graphic User Interface for Both Systems Previously, many systems still required two separate user interface environments to control fire alarm and voice evacuation components. Here’s where Avenar bridges the gap: Users can now fully control safety equipment such as fire alarm, voice alarm, door controls, and more, directly on the Avenar panel display via the “eMatrix” feature. With its 7-inch touch screen, eMatrix puts full control of all system components on a single interface. The results include faster response times from eliminating the need to switch between platforms, as well as a one-stop overview of the latest situation.With its 7-inch touch screen, eMatrix puts full control of all system components on a single interface eMatrix displays the status of all connected fire safety equipment and evacuation zones in a color-coded format, indicating states by red, yellow, and green labels. Operators also directly see the status of automated emergency responses currently in progress, with the option to intervene manually as needed. These manual commands are available in the form of icons on screen that control sirens, strobe lights and voice announcements. Constant feedback on the progress of evacuation measures allows for an unprecedented level of control in emergency situations. Networked Solutions for Tomorrow’s Smart Buildings In a world where connectivity and cloud computing are key drivers of innovation, both panels support fast ethernet system architecture with 100Mbit data transfer rates. What’s more, fire panels and voice alarm components connect to a network, allowing for the integration of building management systems such as HVAC. In a world challenged by pandemic restrictions, remote maintenance and control are day one features of the platform. Looking into the future, the next generation not only immediately puts faster response times and better situational oversight into system operator’s hands. When it comes to smart building technologies that support emergency responses with AI-based automation for even faster turnaround, the Avenar panels also provide the hardware and connectivity to pave the way.

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