对于那些负责采购和管理消防队的人来说,速度、驾驶性能和可靠性是最重要的问题。

除了能够在城市交通中快速、安全地加速、减速和停止外,消防车还需要在狭窄空间或崎岖地形中具有高度机动性。它们需要高速进入许多不同类型的环境,而且,与专业卡车司机以较慢速度驾驶的其他类型重型车辆相比,它们需要易于操作。

与此同时,需要车辆,足够强大,足以携带消防机组人员,重型专业设备和大量的水或泡沫。他们还必须提供流畅的骑行,当机组人员戴上笨拙的物品(如面膜和氧气罐)时。他们必须非常可靠,因为崩溃可能导致生命损失。

近年来,制造商一般倾向于指定全自动变速箱

由于所有这些原因,全自动变速箱现在被指定在大多数欧洲消防车,特别是在德国、法国、西班牙和英国。与手动变速箱相比,它们可以提供高达35%的加速,在启动时扭矩更大,在换挡或换挡时没有电源中断,与艾利森变速箱减速器相结合,可以使车辆快速减速,并使设备完全停止。

所有这些都增加了更快的响应时间和拥挤城市街道上更好的机动性。自动化也比手动或自动手动齿轮箱更可靠,更耐用,易于磨损和撕裂,特别是在离合器上。大多数自动化优惠是一个扭矩转换器的一个关键益处,它消除了一个完全不需要离合器的需求。

自动变速器

与手动变速箱相比,它们(全自动变速箱)可以提供高达35%的加速

这就是伦敦消防局(London Fire Brigade)最新款梅赛德斯-奔驰Atego和斯堪尼亚(Scania)卡车采用艾利森自动变速箱的基本原理。“埃里森[自动的]指定传输部分是因为它的响应性和可控性,部分是因为它已经证明自己是LFB操作的可靠解决方案Babcock国际集团的工程和技术经理Neil Corcoran告诉我们,该集团负责管理和维护LFB船队。我们已经亲眼目睹了艾利森号的维护要求非常低。当然,设备的可靠性在应急服务中是必不可少的。“

艾利森在欧洲消防领域占据主导地位,该公司花了数十年时间设计和制造全自动变速箱,在关键情况下发挥最佳性能,并提供了手动或自动手动变速箱(amt)无法提供的重要优势。在机场车队中尤其如此,因为车辆响应时间是由法律规定的。

Allison传播。伦敦消防队

伦敦消防局有大量的梅赛德斯-奔驰Atego消防车,全部配备艾利森变速箱

更清洁的燃料

近年来,制造商一般倾向于指定全自动变速箱。与其他商用车市场一样,它们也在寻找柴油燃料的替代品,如压缩天然气(CNG)或液化天然气(LNG),以在中长期内减少排放,特别是在城市地区。

自动变速箱远比手动或自动手动变速箱更可靠和耐用,这些都容易磨损

自动变速器通常非常适用于压缩天然气和液化天然气发动机,因为在换挡过程中,手动和自动手动变速器发生的扭矩中断更不稳定,在火花点火的CNG和LPG发动机中更难预测。相比之下,自动变速器可以平稳地将动力传递到驱动轮,并使发动机和变速器之间的效率达到最高,从而带来更好的性能、机动性、安全性和驾驶舒适性,并显著降低噪音。

2019年,德国消防车制造商Magirus发布了世界上首款以压缩天然气(CNG)为动力的系列化消防车。作为该公司“创新驱动线(iDL)”系列的一部分,(H) LF 10消防车采用Iveco Eurocargo 4x2底盘,配备420升CNG和全自动艾利森变速器。它的续航里程可达300公里,泵的运行时间可达4小时。

森林消防车的速度和动力

用于应对森林火灾的4x4车辆也越来越多地使用自动变速箱,因为它们在极端条件下的表现优于amt。森林消防车辆需要能够携带强大、高容量的泵和加农炮,以及大量的水或其他灭火介质。它们必须能够在极热的环境下,在非常崎岖陡峭的地形上快速行进。amt和手动变速器无法很好地应对这些情况。

最新推出的自动森林消防车的一个例子是西班牙制造的UROVESA K6 is,它配备了艾利森3000系列™变速箱。它的底盘最大总重量(GVW)为16公吨,良好的牵引力和极其强劲的部件。

据UROVESA总裁兼首席执行官Justo Sierra介绍,与其他车辆相比,自动变速器结合了独立的悬挂系统,提供了更大的安全保障和效率,并且在森林消防应用中有着巨大的需求,因为它的行驶速度是传统4x4卡车的两倍。”这些变速箱便于驾驶,防止变速错误,使双手在任何时候都在车轮上,提高了驾驶员的人体工程学和安全性,”Sierra解释道。

UROVESA K6是森林消防车
西班牙产的UROVESA K6 IS森林消防车配备了全自动变速箱。它的行驶速度是传统四轮驱动卡车的两倍

打击车辆回滚

自动驾驶有很多方法可以帮助减少事故,提高驾驶员的意识、舒适度和安全性,从防止车辆回滚(手动变速器的主要问题)到提供卓越的车辆控制和低速行驶时的机动性。

此外,由于发动机的响应与驾驶员要求的内容密切相关,所以车辆的初始进展对于可能误解速度的骑自行车者和行人来说更加可预测,因此可能会误解速度缓慢。

电子功能如将传输放入空档时,将驾驶室或安全互锁与身体设备进一步降低了事故的风险。

基业常青

消防车往往每周只使用几个小时,行驶里程较低。因此,它们可以使用长达25年或30年。因此,对车队买家来说,获得正确的规格更重要,以确保他们的车辆将通过时间的考验,并提供他们需要几十年的性能。这也是为什么这么多人继续选择艾利森行星自动装置的另一个原因。

与LinkedIn分享 分享推特 和Facebook分享 和Facebook分享
下载版本 下载版本

作者简介

内森•威尔逊
内森•威尔逊客户及市场开发经理Allison传播公司。

Nathan Wilson,艾利森传动公司(Allison Transmission)英国客户与市场开发经理,为全国卡车车队以及英国卡车制造商提供支持。他在市政车队的动力系统技术应用方面有特别的专业知识,全自动变速箱可以提高燃油经济性,改善空气质量,并降低整个生命周期的车辆成本。Nathan在整个职业生涯中一直在汽车行业工作,在梅赛德斯-奔驰和现代汽车公司担任过各种管理职位。

以防你错过了

2020年回顾:COVID-19对消防行业和消防的影响
2020年回顾:COVID-19对消防行业和消防的影响

Covid-19在2020年主导了头条新闻,它对消防行业产生了深远的影响。TheBigredGuide.com发布了许多关于大流行和其影响的文章,其中一些是一年中最读的文章之一。此回顾性将突出一些与原始内容的链接相关的一些相关的文章。消防行业协会(FIA)在英国发表了一份关于冠状病毒大流行影响的调查报告。由FIA进行的调查试图了解如何通过Covid-19和现在和未来对更广泛的消防行业的影响以及对更广泛的消防行业的影响。弹性是FIA报告中的重复主题。在调查时(当英国刚过冠状病毒峰时),总共81%的受访者预计他们可以在目前情况下继续运作三个月或更长时间。迅速蔓延的病毒大约是第四个预期,他们的业务可以持续六个月(23.4%),另一季度受访者预计他们可以持续一年(23.4%)。第一响应者是最新的Covid-19健康危机的前线。世界各地 - 世界各地 - EMS部门面临着快速蔓延的病毒的不确定性。 One early problem was a shortage of face masks. As cases surged, it was also harder for ambulance companies to get other needed supplies. Around the United States - and around the world - EMS departments faced the uncertainties of a rapidly-spreading virus In King County, Wash., an early epicenter of COVID-19 cases in the United States, Kirkland, Wash., firefighters and Kirkland police officers were placed under quarantine after an outbreak at a senior care facility. Firefighters were either quarantined at home or at a local fire station. Fire stations are unique environments with conditions that could be conducive to the spread of the novel coronavirus/COVID-19. municipal fire departments Firefighters live in close quarters for 24-hour shifts, and then return home to their families. Reports about “hot” firehouses have helped to emphasize the need to follow best practices to avoid the spread of the disease. The Fire Department Safety Officers Association (FDSOA) compiled a list of guidelines that departments can put into practice to reduce and/or avoid cross-contamination of on-duty staff. Among other impacts on the fire industry, the COVID-19 global pandemic played havoc with the industry’s trade show schedule, with major events canceled or delayed. County and municipal fire departments were impacted as local governments respond to the COVID-19-induced economic downturn with spending freezes, hiring freezes and spending cuts. Some local governments are hoping for help from the state and/or federal level. address economic downturns Although some governments have “rainy day funds” to address economic downturns, not all of them do. Furthermore, the extent of the current economic crisis may exceed our worst fears. Proposed budget cuts for some fire and EMS departments are in the 10% to 25% range. A consequence of the coronavirus shutdown was cancellation of hundreds of volunteer fire department fundraisers across the United States - from fish fries to bingo to hog roasts to chicken barbecues. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the trend toward working from home accelerated No more carnivals or spaghetti suppers or gun raffles. And departments lost thousands of dollars. Firefighters are used to wearing protective gear, but one U.S. locale exempted first responders from adhering to a mask mandate to address coronavirus risks. The City Council of Portsmouth, New Hampshire, proposed an amendment to exempt first responders from complying with the city’s face mask ordinance. ensure social distancing Specifically, the proposed amendment states, “Exempted from the requirements of the ordinance requiring wearing of face coverings include law enforcement personnel, first responders or other workers, who are actively engaged in their tasks, if wearing a face covering may hinder their performance.” During the COVID-19 pandemic, the trend toward working from home accelerated. New technologies made it possible for 911 dispatchers to work from home, whether to ensure social distancing or to supplement operations during evolving emergencies. The computer-aided dispatch (CAD) systems offer web-based interfaces and mobile capabilities that enable public-safety answering point (PSAP) operators to work from anywhere. Other technologies that are paving the way for dispatchers to work from home include the cloud, virtual private networks (VPNs), and faster data speeds. blocking firefighter access Adapting workspaces to operate safely during a pandemic presents complications, not least of which is making sure that the measures taken to protect employees from infection do not undermine fire safety. In the course of altering a building to prevent infection spread, there are risks of introducing new life safety hazards and compromising emergency preparedness. It is also important to avoid blocking firefighter access and facilities As buildings adapt to new occupancy standards and requirements, it is critical that any protective measures do not interfere with operation of life safety systems. Might temporary partitions or barriers block escape routes during a fire emergency? Social distancing measures might entail blocking emergency exists and disrupting the flow of occupants looking to vacate a building. It is also important to avoid blocking firefighter access and facilities. career options The COVID-19 pandemic is disrupting every aspect of our business lives. But buried among the disruption was an opportunity. Newly idled workers could see this as an opportune time for training to expand their career options. Meanwhile, employees still on the job may find that a cancelled or postponed project means they have time on their hands. Training can enable them to make the most of that time. In-person training has come to a halt, of course, because of social distancing requirements. Filling the gap are new online learning opportunities.

火灾风险:教育公民节日快乐
火灾风险:教育公民节日快乐

假期里充满了火灾可能带来的危险。从干枯的圣诞树到过载的电路,在人们意识可能处于低谷的季节,这种危险是很高的。消防部门很好地向市民传达这些危险。在家庭和企业防火方面,社交媒体比以往任何时候都更容易传播“好习惯信息”。根据最新的统计数据(涵盖2013-2017年),根据NFPA应用研究,消防部门每年平均应对160起家庭火灾,火灾起因是圣诞树。44%的家庭圣诞树火灾与照明设备的电力分配有关,另外25%是由某种热源引起的,比如蜡烛离圣诞树太近。除圣诞树外,美国消防部门平均每年应对780起始于圣诞装饰的房屋建筑火灾(根据NFPA应用研究的数据,从2013年到2017年)。据报道,平均每天有22起家庭烛光火灾,其中两个烛光燃烧的高峰期是圣诞节和平安夜。约10%的烟花火灾发生在12月30日至1月3日之间,在元旦达到高峰。美国消防管理局提供了一系列节日、蜡烛和圣诞树外展材料,使消防部门能够提高社区对节日火灾的意识。 A social media toolkit contains content that a department can easily share on Twitter, Facebook or other social media channels. Content may be copied or customized to reach any audience. Messages from the U.S. Fire Administration that departments can share on social media platforms include: The top three days of the year for home candle fires are Christmas, New Year’s Day, and New Year’s Eve. Residents should only use decorations that are flame-retardant or not flammable. Holiday lights should be checked each year for frayed wires or excessive wear. A limit of three strands of holiday lights should be linked. Burning candles should not be left unattended. Battery-operated flameless candles are a safer alternative. Christmas trees should be kept away from heat sources and room exits. Watering a Christmas tree daily keeps it from becoming dry and flammable. Care is required to ensure that the festivities of the season do not come at a cost of lost property and/or lives Care is required to ensure that the festivities of the season do not come at a cost of lost property and/or lives. Fire prevention can lessen the burden on firefighters during a season when spending time with family is at a premium. The sadness of a fire tragedy, especially during the holiday season, can be unbearable. The holiday season is also an appropriate time to acknowledge the hard work that departments and other fire professionals dedicate to preventing and fighting fires. We at TheBigRedGuide.com salute the work of the fire service and the fire industry to keep residents and businesses safe from fire and other emergencies, both during the holiday season and throughout the year. Happy holidays to all our readers, and we look forward to providing even more useful information on our site in 2021.

2020回顾:野火的破坏性,展望未来
2020回顾:野火的破坏性,展望未来

野火代表了火灾致命破坏性的极端情况。每年似乎都有更多的野火,而世界各地竟然比以往任何时候都更大,更致命的野火。野火主导了对火灾最极端后果的公众感知。这回顾2020将突出一些关于BigredGuide.com发布的野火的一些文章,其中包含全长原始文章的链接。美国西方西方野火季节开始慢于去年。在本赛季的上半年,北极野火达到了新的水平,特别是在阿拉斯加和西伯利亚。根据国家环境信息的统计,西方燃烧野火燃烧野火的野火杀死了160人,并在过去两年中造成了400亿美元的损害。这种趋势朝着更大的火灾燃烧更多的英亩 - 特别是在温暖的年份。2020年初,澳大利亚是野火灾难的震中。持续的热量和干旱加剧了野火,每澳大利亚州都有火灾,虽然新的南威尔士州遭遇最难的袭击。 Strong winds have spread smoke and fire rapidly and led to fatalities. Big cities like Melbourne and Sydney have been affected; large fires have damaged homes in the outer suburbs and smoke has destroyed air quality in urban areas. Whole towns have been engulfed in flames. Active wildfire season Another cause of recent wildfires was lightning with more than 10,000 lightning strikes sparking 376 fires In the context of wildfires, even seemingly minor events can have a very large impact. For example, an explosion of blue-colored smoke on Sept. 5, 2020, in Yucalpa, California, was the beginning of a large wildfire in El Dorado Ranch Park. The pyrotechnic device was essentially a smoke bomb designed to send plumes of pink or blue smoke rising into the air, designating the gender of an expected baby. Another cause of recent wildfires was lightning with more than 10,000 lightning strikes sparking 376 fires on Aug 16 and 17, 2020. The global pandemic presented complications for firefighters during what will the active wildfire season. Firefighting manpower could be diminished by the pandemic; training sessions have been canceled, postponed, or conducted remotely. And travel risks undermine the traditional approach of calling on firefighters from throughout the country or around the world to help fight the wildfires. Addressing forest management Social distancing is at odds with the teamwork and camaraderie that characterize firefighting units. Communal basecamps where everyone eats and sleeps together are unworkable during the pandemic. Instead, smaller camps are the rule, and packaged meals are delivered to each camp. Smaller teams reduce the need for widespread quarantine if someone tests positive for the novel coronavirus. Drones are a tool to address forest management and wildfire prevention. Drones are finding multiple uses when it comes to fighting and preventing wildfires. One application is to drop self-igniting ‘dragon eggs’ that spark smaller fires to trim back overgrown forests and help prevent more destructive megafires. The dragon egg system is made up of self-igniting plastic spheres – about the size of a ping-pong ball. Dragon eggs have been an industry standard for years, usually dropped from planes or helicopters. Burnable plant material Researchers are looking to apply new approaches in address the risk of wildfires The spheres are filled with potassium permanganate powder and injected with glycol as an igniter just as they are being dropped. The reaction sets the balls ablaze after about 30 seconds, which is enough time for them to bounce to the ground through a forest canopy. Researchers are looking to apply new approaches in address the risk of wildfires. They include tools such as deep learning and artificial intelligence (AI) to better understand wildfires and to control their intensity. The model could be used to reveal areas of greatest risk for wildfires. A new deep learning model uses remote sensing and satellite data to trace fuel moisture levels across 12 Western states, in effect tracking the amount of easily burnable plant material and how dry it is. Damaging impacts of wildfires Science shows clearly that the way to reduce the damaging impacts of wildfires and threats to life and property is to proactively manage ecosystems that evolved with fire. This means reintroducing fire in the right ways and places combined with mimicking the effects of fire on forest structure through mechanical treatments. “Rocky Mountain Research Station's Fire, Fuel, and Smoke Science Program (RMRS) focuses on the science of risk management from ways that they can treat fuels and mitigate risks to helping communities assess and mitigate risk and be more resilient,” says Thomas C. Dzomba, Deputy Program Manager and Director of the Fire Modeling Institute. Understanding the underlying causes of wildfires enables us to control them better over the long haul. Enhancing fire science With a primary goal of enhancing fire science, the lab also impacts operational fire response One element is climate change, which has created conditions prone to wildfires by increasing heat, changing rain and snow patterns, and shifting plant communities. But there are also other contributing factors in the growing scale and intensity of wildfires. One is the condition of the forests in Australia, California, and other areas where the incidence of wildfires has increased. In California, for example, it is well known that the forests are unhealthy and in need of more prescribed burns and other thinning efforts. On the front line of turning data into useful information to advance fire science is the WIFIRE Lab at the University of California San Diego. The WIFIRE lab grew out of a project funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF). With a primary goal of enhancing fire science, the lab also impacts operational fire response, increasingly in real time. Wildfire risk monitoring The tragic Camp Fire in November 2018, which burned for 17 days in Butte County, near the city of Paradise, Calif., has prompted research to improve risk management and monitoring of wildfires in the future. The vision of the research is ‘a computational platform for multi-level wildfire risk assessment.’ The researchers seek to redefine wildfire risk monitoring and management to provide a platform that can be used by wildfire managers, emergency responders and utility companies to plan for, respond to, and mitigate the risk of wildfires. In Australia, new resources are addressing the growth of wildfires. Preventing and controlling wildfires Andrew and Nicola Forrest have committed 50 million Australian dollars (US$35 million) to the Fire and Flood Resilience initiative through Minderoo Foundation, with a goal of raising an additional 450 million (US$320 million) in direct or in-kind support over the life of the program. The goal of the ambitious investment is to make Australia the pioneer in fire and flood resistance by the year 2025 The goal of the ambitious investment is to make Australia the pioneer in fire and flood resistance by the year 2025. It is an audacious vision that requires an innovative approach, and the organization takes inspiration from the U.S. Apollo mission of the 1960s. In effect, it will be a ‘moonshot’ to advance the cause of preventing and controlling wildfires. Specifically, the first mission, Fire Shield, seeks to ensure no dangerous bushfire in Australia will burn longer than an hour by 2025. Local fire departments The biggest risk of property damage and injury from wildfires comes at the wildland-urban interface (WUI), which is defined as areas where structures and the built environment begin to intermingle with wildland vegetation. More and more such areas are being created as humans move near wildland areas to take advantage of their natural beauty and privacy. The ‘Ready, Set, Go! (RSG!)’ Program works to increase engagement by local fire departments with residents that live in areas at risk of wildland fires. A program of the International Association of Fire Chiefs (IAFC), ‘Ready, Set, Go!’ offers the tools and resources for fire departments to provide more understanding of the risk of wildland fires and the actions residents should take to reduce the risk.

vfd.