野火代表了火灾致命破坏性的极端情况。每年似乎都有更多的野火,而世界各地竟然比以往任何时候都更大,更致命的野火。野火主导了对火灾最极端后果的公众感知。

这次2020年回顾将重点介绍TheBigRedGuide.com发表的一些关于野火的文章,并提供完整的原始文章链接。美国西部11个州的野火季节开始比去年慢.在本赛季的上半年,北极野火达到了新的水平,特别是在阿拉斯加和西伯利亚。

较大的火灾燃烧

根据美国国家环境信息中心(National Centers for Environmental Information)的数据,过去两年,西部的野火造成160人死亡,400亿美元损失。目前的趋势是更大的火灾会烧毁更多的土地,尤其是在气候温暖的年份。

2020年初,澳大利亚是野火灾难的震中。持续热量和干旱加剧了野火,澳大利亚每个州都发生过火灾尽管新南威尔士州受到的打击最为严重。强风使浓烟和火灾迅速蔓延,并导致人员死亡。墨尔本和悉尼等大城市也受到了影响;大火毁坏了远郊的房屋,浓烟破坏了城市地区的空气质量。整个城镇都被大火吞噬了。

活跃的野火季节

最近发生野火的另一个原因是闪电,超过1万次的闪电引发了376起火灾

在野火的背景下,似乎轻微的事件甚至可能产生非常大的影响。例如,一个蓝色烟雾爆炸2020年9月5日,加利福尼亚州尤加尔帕(Yucalpa)是El Dorado Ranch Park的大型野火的开始。烟火装置本质上是一个烟雾炸弹,旨在将粉红色或蓝色烟雾卷起到空气中,指定预期婴儿的性别。最近野火的另一个原因是闪电,超过10,000次雷击,火花在2012年8月16日和17日起火花376火灾。

全球大流行呈现消防员的并发症在活跃的野火季节期间。消防人力可能会被大流行减少;培训课程已被取消,推迟或远程进行。旅行风险破坏了传统的呼吁来自全国各地的消防员或世界各地的方法,以帮助打击野火。

解决森林管理

社会疏散与团队合作和Camaraderie有可能,这些是消防单位的特征。社区Basecamps在大流行期间,每个人都吃和睡觉的人相反,较小的营地是规则,包装的饭菜被交付给每个营地。如果有人测试新的冠状病毒,较小的团队可以减少广泛检疫的需求。

无人机是解决森林管理和野火预防的工具。无人机发现在战斗和防止野火时多次使用.其中一项应用是丢弃能引发较小火灾的自燃“龙蛋”,以修剪杂草丛生的森林,并帮助防止更具破坏性的特大火灾。龙蛋系统是由能自动点火的塑料球组成的,这个塑料球和乒乓球差不多大。多年来,龙蛋一直是行业标准,通常从飞机或直升机上扔下。

可燃的植物材料

研究人员正在寻找新的方法来应对野火的风险

球形填充有高锰酸钾粉末,并将乙二醇注入作为点火器,就像它们被掉落一样。该反应在约30秒后将球燃烧设置,这是通过森林冠层将其反弹到地面的足够的时间。

研究人员希望在满足野火的风险中应用新方法。它们包括深度学习和人工智能(AI)等工具,以更好地了解野火并控制自己的强度。该模型可用于揭示野火风险最大的领域。新的深度学习模型使用遥感和卫星数据追踪西部12个州的燃料水分水平,实际上是追踪容易燃烧的植物材料的数量和它们的干燥程度。

野火的破坏性影响

科学表明,减少野火损坏和生命和财产威胁的破坏性影响主动管理与火一起进化的生态系统.这意味着以正确的方式重新介绍火灾,并通过机械处理模拟火灾对森林结构的影响。

岩石山研究站的火灾,燃料和烟幕科学计划(RMRS)侧重于风险管理的科学,他们可以从他们治疗燃料和减轻风险到帮助社区评估和减轻风险,并更具弹性,“托马斯C. Dzomba说,副计划经理和消防研究所主任Dzomba说。了解野火的潜在原因使我们能够在长途运输中更好地控制它们。

增强消防科学

该实验室的主要目标是提高火灾科学水平,同时也影响作战火灾反应

其中一个因素是气候变化,气候变化通过增加热量、改变雨雪模式和改变植物群落,创造了容易发生野火的条件。但是也有造成野火规模和强度不断增加的其他因素.一个是澳大利亚,加利福尼亚州的森林的状况,以及野火发病率增加的其他领域。例如,在加利福尼亚州,众所周知,森林是不健康的,需要更多规定的烧伤和其他稀疏的努力。

在转向数据的前线,进入有用的信息以推进消防科学是加州大学圣地亚哥分校的WIFIRE实验室.WIFIRE实验室是由美国国家科学基金会(NSF)资助的一个项目发展起来的。该实验室的主要目标是增强火灾科学,同时也影响作战火灾反应,而且越来越实时。

野火风险监控

2018年11月的悲惨阵营火灾,在加利福尼亚州的天堂市附近的巴特县烧了17天。已提示改善风险管理和野火监测的研究在将来。该研究的愿景是“多级野火风险评估的计算平台”。

研究人员寻求重新定义野火风险监测和管理,以提供一个可以由野火管理人员,紧急响应者和公用事业公司使用的平台来规划,回应和减轻野火的风险。raybet王者荣耀在澳大利亚,新资源正在解决野火的增长。

预防和控制野火

安德鲁·福雷斯特和尼古拉·福雷斯特已承诺向该公司投入5000万澳元(3500万美元)通过Minderoo基金会发起的火灾和洪水复原计划,目标是在计划实施期间再筹集4.5亿欧元(合3.2亿美元)的直接或实物支持。

雄心勃勃的投资的目标是使澳大利亚在2025年的火灾和洪水抵抗

这项雄心勃勃的投资的目标是到2025年使澳大利亚成为防火和抗洪的先锋。这是一个大胆的愿景,需要创新的方法,该组织的灵感来自美国20世纪60年代的阿波罗任务。实际上,这将是推进预防和控制野火事业的“登月”。具体来说,第一个任务“防火盾”(Fire Shield)旨在确保到2025年澳大利亚的危险森林大火不会超过一个小时。

当地消防部门

野火伤害和野火伤害的最大风险来自野外城市界面(Wui),被定义为结构和建筑环境开始与荒地植被的区域。越来越多的这样的领域是人类在威尔兰地区靠近野蛮地区,以利用他们的自然美容和隐私。

“准备好了,,走吧!(显示)的计划努力增加当地消防部门与居住在野外火灾风险的居民的居民的参与。国际消防委员会协会(IAFC)计划(IAFC),“准备好,套装!”为消防部门提供的工具和资源,以便更多地了解野外火灾风险,行动居民应采取措施降低风险。

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作者简介

拉里安德森
拉里安德森编辑器中,TheBigRedGuide.com,诺丁山媒体

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2020回顾:野火的破坏性,展望未来
2020回顾:野火的破坏性,展望未来

野火代表了火灾致命破坏性的极端情况。每年似乎都有更多的野火,而世界各地竟然比以往任何时候都更大,更致命的野火。野火主导了对火灾最极端后果的公众感知。这次2020年回顾将重点介绍TheBigRedGuide.com发表的一些关于野火的文章,并提供完整的原始文章链接。美国西方西方野火季节开始慢于去年。在本赛季的上半年,北极野火达到了新的水平,特别是在阿拉斯加和西伯利亚。根据国家环境信息的统计,西方燃烧野火燃烧野火的野火杀死了160人,并在过去两年中造成了400亿美元的损害。目前的趋势是更大的火灾会烧毁更多的土地,尤其是在气候温暖的年份。2020年初,澳大利亚是野火灾难的震中。持续的热量和干旱加剧了野火,每澳大利亚州都有火灾,虽然新的南威尔士州遭遇最难的袭击。 Strong winds have spread smoke and fire rapidly and led to fatalities. Big cities like Melbourne and Sydney have been affected; large fires have damaged homes in the outer suburbs and smoke has destroyed air quality in urban areas. Whole towns have been engulfed in flames. Active wildfire season Another cause of recent wildfires was lightning with more than 10,000 lightning strikes sparking 376 fires In the context of wildfires, even seemingly minor events can have a very large impact. For example, an explosion of blue-colored smoke on Sept. 5, 2020, in Yucalpa, California, was the beginning of a large wildfire in El Dorado Ranch Park. The pyrotechnic device was essentially a smoke bomb designed to send plumes of pink or blue smoke rising into the air, designating the gender of an expected baby. Another cause of recent wildfires was lightning with more than 10,000 lightning strikes sparking 376 fires on Aug 16 and 17, 2020. The global pandemic presented complications for firefighters during what will the active wildfire season. Firefighting manpower could be diminished by the pandemic; training sessions have been canceled, postponed, or conducted remotely. And travel risks undermine the traditional approach of calling on firefighters from throughout the country or around the world to help fight the wildfires. Addressing forest management Social distancing is at odds with the teamwork and camaraderie that characterize firefighting units. Communal basecamps where everyone eats and sleeps together are unworkable during the pandemic. Instead, smaller camps are the rule, and packaged meals are delivered to each camp. Smaller teams reduce the need for widespread quarantine if someone tests positive for the novel coronavirus. Drones are a tool to address forest management and wildfire prevention. Drones are finding multiple uses when it comes to fighting and preventing wildfires. One application is to drop self-igniting ‘dragon eggs’ that spark smaller fires to trim back overgrown forests and help prevent more destructive megafires. The dragon egg system is made up of self-igniting plastic spheres – about the size of a ping-pong ball. Dragon eggs have been an industry standard for years, usually dropped from planes or helicopters. Burnable plant material Researchers are looking to apply new approaches in address the risk of wildfires The spheres are filled with potassium permanganate powder and injected with glycol as an igniter just as they are being dropped. The reaction sets the balls ablaze after about 30 seconds, which is enough time for them to bounce to the ground through a forest canopy. Researchers are looking to apply new approaches in address the risk of wildfires. They include tools such as deep learning and artificial intelligence (AI) to better understand wildfires and to control their intensity. The model could be used to reveal areas of greatest risk for wildfires. A new deep learning model uses remote sensing and satellite data to trace fuel moisture levels across 12 Western states, in effect tracking the amount of easily burnable plant material and how dry it is. Damaging impacts of wildfires Science shows clearly that the way to reduce the damaging impacts of wildfires and threats to life and property is to proactively manage ecosystems that evolved with fire. This means reintroducing fire in the right ways and places combined with mimicking the effects of fire on forest structure through mechanical treatments. “Rocky Mountain Research Station's Fire, Fuel, and Smoke Science Program (RMRS) focuses on the science of risk management from ways that they can treat fuels and mitigate risks to helping communities assess and mitigate risk and be more resilient,” says Thomas C. Dzomba, Deputy Program Manager and Director of the Fire Modeling Institute. Understanding the underlying causes of wildfires enables us to control them better over the long haul. Enhancing fire science With a primary goal of enhancing fire science, the lab also impacts operational fire response One element is climate change, which has created conditions prone to wildfires by increasing heat, changing rain and snow patterns, and shifting plant communities. But there are also other contributing factors in the growing scale and intensity of wildfires. One is the condition of the forests in Australia, California, and other areas where the incidence of wildfires has increased. In California, for example, it is well known that the forests are unhealthy and in need of more prescribed burns and other thinning efforts. On the front line of turning data into useful information to advance fire science is the WIFIRE Lab at the University of California San Diego. The WIFIRE lab grew out of a project funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF). With a primary goal of enhancing fire science, the lab also impacts operational fire response, increasingly in real time. Wildfire risk monitoring The tragic Camp Fire in November 2018, which burned for 17 days in Butte County, near the city of Paradise, Calif., has prompted research to improve risk management and monitoring of wildfires in the future. The vision of the research is ‘a computational platform for multi-level wildfire risk assessment.’ The researchers seek to redefine wildfire risk monitoring and management to provide a platform that can be used by wildfire managers, emergency responders and utility companies to plan for, respond to, and mitigate the risk of wildfires. In Australia, new resources are addressing the growth of wildfires. Preventing and controlling wildfires Andrew and Nicola Forrest have committed 50 million Australian dollars (US$35 million) to the Fire and Flood Resilience initiative through Minderoo Foundation, with a goal of raising an additional 450 million (US$320 million) in direct or in-kind support over the life of the program. The goal of the ambitious investment is to make Australia the pioneer in fire and flood resistance by the year 2025 The goal of the ambitious investment is to make Australia the pioneer in fire and flood resistance by the year 2025. It is an audacious vision that requires an innovative approach, and the organization takes inspiration from the U.S. Apollo mission of the 1960s. In effect, it will be a ‘moonshot’ to advance the cause of preventing and controlling wildfires. Specifically, the first mission, Fire Shield, seeks to ensure no dangerous bushfire in Australia will burn longer than an hour by 2025. Local fire departments The biggest risk of property damage and injury from wildfires comes at the wildland-urban interface (WUI), which is defined as areas where structures and the built environment begin to intermingle with wildland vegetation. More and more such areas are being created as humans move near wildland areas to take advantage of their natural beauty and privacy. The ‘Ready, Set, Go! (RSG!)’ Program works to increase engagement by local fire departments with residents that live in areas at risk of wildland fires. A program of the International Association of Fire Chiefs (IAFC), ‘Ready, Set, Go!’ offers the tools and resources for fire departments to provide more understanding of the risk of wildland fires and the actions residents should take to reduce the risk.

2020年评论:技术塑造消防行业未来
2020年评论:技术塑造消防行业未来

技术与创新正在塑造消防行业的未来。在2020年期间,TheBigredGuide.com发布了许多触及研究,开发和新技术的文章。此综述将审查一些最受欢迎的文章,包括与原始内容的链接。热成像和增强现实(AR)结合热成像和增强现实(AR)使消防员能够通过烟雾来看,实际上在威胁危及火灾的危及生命环境中提高他们的视力。AR能力可以在连接到头盔的遮阳板中部署,并且固定的热相机捕获图像。这种产品的最新原型是一种强大的头盔设计,可承受粗糙的处理。该系统还包括增强热图像以使消防员能够更清楚地看到物体轮廓的软件处理,从而在该领域中启用他们的检测。岩石山脉研究站(RMRS)在Missoula Missoula的岩石山研究站(RMRS)的消防研究计划,通过改善决定消防员安全区和逃生路线,改善和现代化火灾危险的测定,增强了消防员安全。开发野火安全评估员(明智)和野生鱼类等系统和应用,以促进野外消防员使用这些指标。该计划还开创了场景规划和评估对社区的野火风险的指标的发展。 Internet of Things (IoT) The Internet of Things (IoT) is expanding the variety of technical capabilities deployed in the interest of public safety, and smart cities are leveraging IoT data to provide insights and improve operations. The U.S. Department of Homeland Security is promoting technology development through its Science and Technology Directorate’s SCITI (pronounced “city”) solutions lab. SCITI stands for Smart City and Internet of Things Innovation. Crowd Management & Fire Protection Research Foundation (FPRF) Fire Protection Research Foundation (FPRF) has developed a computerized tool to provide data Crowd management can be critical in a fire emergency – or in almost any other emergency situation. The Fire Protection Research Foundation (FPRF) has undertaken a project to develop a computerized tool to provide data and situational awareness about crowds based on computer vision analysis of the video. Crowds have become an unusual occurrence during the COVID-19 pandemic, but sooner or later, life will be returning to normal. When it does, the safety consequences of poor crowd management will again become top-of-mind for many in the emergency response fields. Complexity Of GPS Coordinates A solution to address the complexity of GPS coordinates in an emergency situation, “what3words” is an easy way to identify precise locations using a unique combination of three words. The benefits of what3words for fire and emergency services agencies are already being realized. what3words addresses are shorter, easier to understand over the phone, and built-in error prevention technology allows emergency services to immediately verify the location and correct mistakes. Drones For Firefighting And Fire Prevention Drones, or unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), are expanding their usefulness in the arenas of firefighting and fire prevention, whether in a downtown business district or in fire-prone wildlands. Among other benefits, drones can provide situational awareness, guide emergency response, and perform dangerous duties while keeping fire personnel safe. Drones provide a new solution for extinguishing fires in high-rise buildings, which can occur beyond the reach of fire nozzles and rescue ladders. Artificial Intelligence & Machine Learning Students and faculty at Hongik University are developing AI and machine learning (ML) algorithms The fire service worldwide collects a lot of data, and a university in Seoul, South Korea, is researching how to crunch the numbers using artificial intelligence (AI) to predict the probability of fires more accurately and to direct fire departments’ assets where they will do the most good. Students and faculty at Hongik University are developing AI and machine learning (ML) algorithms into a model that can predict the probability of fires and enable authorities to take action to make the city safer. The project has used the Microsoft Azure Machine Learning Studio, a Web portal for data scientist developers. The researchers ran various ML modules until they were able to predict fires with 90% accuracy. Firefighters Health Wellness, mental toughness, and psychological self-care for firefighters are available in the palms of their hands; in a smart phone app. Fire and police agencies can provide their officers access to these and other self-help tools in an app that reflects each agency’s identity and design choices. Employees can be assured that the use of the app is totally confidential. Tracking Exposure Tracking firefighters’ exposure to smoke and cancer-causing materials is important when it comes to assessing liability claims, worker's compensation, and coverage for occupational health claims. Tracking and documenting exposure data for firefighters is easier than ever using the National Fire Operations Reporting System (NFORS) Exposure Tracker App, developed by the International Public Safety Data Institute (IPSDI) as part of the NFORS Analytics Data System.

火灾风险:教育公民让假期快乐
火灾风险:教育公民让假期快乐

假期里充满了火灾可能带来的危险。从干枯的圣诞树到过载的电路,在人们意识可能处于低谷的季节,这种危险是很高的。消防部门很好地向市民传达这些危险。在家庭和企业防火方面,社交媒体比以往任何时候都更容易传播“好习惯信息”。根据最新的统计数据(涵盖2013-2017年),根据NFPA应用研究,消防部门每年平均应对160起家庭火灾,火灾起因是圣诞树。44%的家庭圣诞树火灾与照明设备的电力分配有关,另外25%是由某种热源引起的,比如蜡烛离圣诞树太近。除圣诞树外,美国消防部门平均每年应对780起始于圣诞装饰的房屋建筑火灾(根据NFPA应用研究的数据,从2013年到2017年)。据报道,平均每天有22起家庭烛光火灾,其中两个烛光燃烧的高峰期是圣诞节和平安夜。约10%的烟花火灾发生在12月30日至1月3日之间,在元旦达到高峰。美国消防管理局提供了一系列节日、蜡烛和圣诞树外展材料,使消防部门能够提高社区对节日火灾的意识。 A social media toolkit contains content that a department can easily share on Twitter, Facebook or other social media channels. Content may be copied or customized to reach any audience. Messages from the U.S. Fire Administration that departments can share on social media platforms include: The top three days of the year for home candle fires are Christmas, New Year’s Day, and New Year’s Eve. Residents should only use decorations that are flame-retardant or not flammable. Holiday lights should be checked each year for frayed wires or excessive wear. A limit of three strands of holiday lights should be linked. Burning candles should not be left unattended. Battery-operated flameless candles are a safer alternative. Christmas trees should be kept away from heat sources and room exits. Watering a Christmas tree daily keeps it from becoming dry and flammable. Care is required to ensure that the festivities of the season do not come at a cost of lost property and/or lives Care is required to ensure that the festivities of the season do not come at a cost of lost property and/or lives. Fire prevention can lessen the burden on firefighters during a season when spending time with family is at a premium. The sadness of a fire tragedy, especially during the holiday season, can be unbearable. The holiday season is also an appropriate time to acknowledge the hard work that departments and other fire professionals dedicate to preventing and fighting fires. We at TheBigRedGuide.com salute the work of the fire service and the fire industry to keep residents and businesses safe from fire and other emergencies, both during the holiday season and throughout the year. Happy holidays to all our readers, and we look forward to providing even more useful information on our site in 2021.

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